Top 15 Facts About Human Heart

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1. The average adult heart beats 72 times a minute; 100,000 times a day; 3,600,000 times a year; and 2.5 billion times during a lifetime.

2. The volume of blood pumped by the heart can vary over a wide range, from five to 30 liters per minute.

Heart facts

3. The fetal heart rate is approximately twice as fast as an adult’s, at about 150 beats per minute. By the time a fetus is 12 weeks old, its heart pumps an amazing 60 pints of blood a day.

4. The heart does the most physical work of any muscle during a lifetime. The power output of the heart ranges from 1-5 watts. While the quadriceps can produce 100 watts for a few minutes, an output of one watt for 80 years is equal to 2.5 gigajoule.

5. Five percent of blood supplies the heart, 15-20% goes to the brain and central nervous system, and 22% goes to the kidneys.

6. The heart pumps oxygenated blood through the aorta (the largest artery) at about 1 mile (1.6 km) per hour. By the time blood reaches the capillaries, it is moving at around 43 inches (109 cm) per hour.

7. The term “heartfelt” originated from Aristotle’s philosophy that the heart collected sensory input from the peripheral organs through the blood vessels. It was from those perceptions that thought and emotions arose.

8. A woman’s heart typically beats faster than a man’s. The heart of an average man beats approximately 70 times a minute, whereas the average woman has a heart rate of 78 beats per minute.

heart facts

9. Some heavy snorers may have a condition called obtrusive sleep apnea (OSA), which can negatively affect the heart.

10. Blood is actually a tissue. When the body is at rest, it takes only six seconds for the blood to go from the heart to the lungs and back, only eight seconds for it to go the brain and back, and only 16 seconds for it to reach the toes and travel all the way back to the heart.

11. The right atrium holds about 3.5 tablespoons of blood. The right ventricle holds slightly more than a quarter cup of blood. The left atrium holds the same amount of blood as the right, but its walls are three times thicker.

12. A newborn baby has about one cup of blood in circulation. An adult human has about four to five quarts which the heart pumps to all the tissues and to and from the lungs in about one minute while beating 75 times.

13. During an average lifetime, the heart will pump nearly 1.5 million barrels of     blood—enough to fill 200 train tank cars.

14. Laughing is good for your heart. It reduces stress and gives a boost to your immune system

15. The youngest person to receive heart surgery was only a minute old. She had a heart defect that many babies don’t survive. Her surgery was successful, but she’ll eventually need heart transplant.


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10 Cooking Tips That Will Change Your Life Updated [2018]

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1. Hard-boiled eggs are rich in protein, and they make a great grab-and-go snack. Just pack a spoon with you—it will help you take the shell off quickly and neatly, especially if the eggs are very fresh.

2. The flesh of kiwis can be super soft, making it hard to separate the peel from this delicious fruit that’s packed with fiber, vitamin C, and folate. Using just a spoon, though, you can peel a kiwi quickly and neatly.

Cooking tips

3. Ginger adds a fresh and spicy kick to almost any dish, but it has nooks and crannies that make it difficult to peel and mince. Here’s a quick and easy way to prepare fresh ginger using a spoon or a fork.

4. A fresh baguette features a delicious, crunchy crust and fluffy middle, but when it goes stale, it turns into a rubbery hunk of bread. Bring life back to dried-out, stale bread with this oh-so-easy technique.

5. Cheese is a tasty addition to any party platter, but the softer varieties can be hard to cut. Learn how to cut soft cheese into perfect slices so your guests can enjoy a snack without making a mess.

6. You may have a steel or a sharpener at home, but once a year, get a pro to revive those knives. Your chopping will get faster, more precise—and, believe it or not, safer.

7. Chicken breasts are expensive and can get dull after a while; thighs are juicier, cheaper, and more flavorful.

8. Do your scrambled eggs slide off the pan if you don’t use oil or butter? They should. Might be time for an upgrade.

cooking tips

9. Put the lid on the pot to make your water boil faster. Seems obvious, but if you don’t know, now you know.

10. Avoid evil glass cutting boards. And they’re all evil. Glass cutting boards send shivers down your spine when you use them. They dull your knives. They’re slippery. And they’re hard to use. Use wood, bamboo or plastic instead.


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Top 10 Tips to Help Children Develop Healthy Habits

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1. Get the whole family moving – Plan times for everyone to get moving together. Take walks, ride bikes, go swimming, garden or just play hide-and-seek outside. Everyone will benefit from the exercise and the time together.1. Get the whole family moving – Plan times for everyone to get moving together. Take walks, ride bikes, go swimming, garden or just play hide-and-seek outside. Everyone will benefit from the exercise and the time together.

healthy habits

2. Keep things positive – Kid’s don’t like to hear what they can’t do, tell them what they can do instead. Keep it fun and positive. Everyone likes to be praised for a job well done. Celebrate successes and help children and teens develop a good self-image.

3. Limit TV, video game and computer time – These habits lead to a sedentary lifestyle and excessive snacking, which increase risks for obesity and cardiovascular disease. Limit screen time to 2 hours per day.

4. Put sweets in their place- Occasional sweets are fine, but don’t turn dessert into the main reason for eating dinner. When dessert is the prize for eating dinner, kids naturally place more value on the cupcake than the broccoli. Try to stay neutral about foods.

5. Kids do as you do. Be a role model and eat healthy yourself. When trying to teach good eating habits, try to set the best example possible. Choose nutritious snacks, eat at the table, and don’t skip meals.

6. Have the fun in the kitchen- Children are more likely to become adventurous eaters if they know how to cook. Make it fun by giving them their own aprons and letting them help you regularly with small tasks in the kitchen. As they get older and more confident, let them cook dinner once a week.

7. Don’t give up- Our research shows that most babies and young children need to try something new seven to ten times before they like it. So don’t be afraid to introduce children to new or more exotic tastes. A good tactic to get kids to eat a wide variety of foods is to tell them that tasting new things is a sign they’re growing up. Or, take them shopping and let them choose a new, healthy food to serve at home with something they already like.

healthy habits

8. Exercise is essential as well-Establish exercise habits in your kids as early as possible, say by the age of 5-6. Heavy weight training exercise is not advisable but daily 10-15 minutes of exercises like stretching or brisk walking should be instilled. Exercises like cycling, jumping ropes or swimming should be encouraged in kids.

9. Stay involved – Be an advocate for healthier children. Insist on good food choices at school. Make sure your children’s healthcare providers are monitoring cardiovascular indicators like BMI, blood pressure and cholesterol. Contact public officials on matters of the heart. Make your voice heard.

10. Start them young- Food preferences are developed early in life, so offer variety. Likes and dislikes begin forming even when kids are babies. You may need to serve a new food a few different times for a child to accept it. Don’t force a child to eat, but offer a few bites. With older kids, ask them to try one bite.


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21 Tips For Improve Our Blood Circulation

Here we can see the tips for improve our blood circulation. Sigma aquaguard is the best aquaguard service center in chennai.

What is Blood Circulation?What is Blood Circulation?Blood circulation is the constant movement of blood throughout the body, made possible by the pumping of the heart. As blood circulates, it delivers essential nutrients and oxygen to all organs and cells in the body. Blood flows through a series of tubes called blood vessels. Arteries are the vessels that carry blood away from the heart, while veins carry blood back toward the heart. Certain parts of the circulatory system present particular challenges to the body.

Signs of Poor Blood CirculationSpecific signs of poor blood circulation include:

1. Diminished energy and feelings of tiredness.

2. Numbness, tingling, or cold sensations in the hands and/or feet.

3. Leg cramps and/or aches.

4. Visible skin discoloration, swelling, or ulcers in the leg.

5. Recurrent calf pain.

6. Sores, cuts, or scratches that heal unusually slowly.

7. Hypertension and high blood pressure.

8. Loss of appetite.

9. Erectile dysfunction.

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How to Improve Blood CirculationIt isn’t always necessary to take prescription drugs to improve health, and improving blood circulation doesn’t have to be difficult. Improving your circulatory system typically requires adding certain foods to your diet and activities to your routine, while eliminating other foods and behaviors. Sometimes, simply cutting back on unhealthy habits and enjoying certain treats in moderation is enough to dramatically improve circulation.

21 Natural Ways to Improve Blood Circulation

• Eating super fruits is the good remedy for improve our blood circulation. Regular consumption of these delicious snacks makes capillary walls stronger and prevents poor circulation. High-fiber goji berries have a high fiber content, which strengthens the immune system and improves overall circulation function. The classic summer treat is high in lycopene, an antioxidant that has been linked to improved blood circulation.

• Far infrared radiation therapy harnesses the sun’s natural healing energy to improve blood circulation, relieve tension, reduce inflammation, strengthen the immune system, and more. The far infrared rays penetrate the body, triggering the release of waste and toxins, which often block the circulatory system from functioning effectively.

• Doctors warn not to wear tight clothing for extended periods of time. Skinny jeans and other extremely tight garments can hinder circulation. Loose or lightly fitted clothing ensures that blood can circulate normally through the body.

• Exercise is a great way to improve circulation. Any activity that gets your blood pumping, from jogging to biking to dancing, will have a major impact. Exercise strengthens the entire cardiovascular system and enables the heart to pump blood through the circulatory system more effectively.

• If you don’t smoke, decide right now that you will never start. If you already smoke, know that it’s essential for your overall health to quit as soon as possible. The benefits of quitting will begin as soon as you stop smoking and will continue over time.

• A good massage can stimulate blood flow in a way that is remarkably similar to exercise. This direction promotes the flow of venous blood and lymph throughout the body and improves overall circulation.

• Leg elevation is a good way to directly improve circulation as well as to promote relaxation.

• Drinking plenty of water ensures that the entire circulatory system continues to work efficiently. Our organs need to stay hydrated to function at their highest levels. Even our blood is, in large part, made up of water.

• Eating a variety of healthy nuts is an excellent way to keep your blood circulating at optimal levels.• While some research has indicated that moderate amounts of coffee may improve cardiovascular health, this finding is not necessarily true for all caffeinated drinks. Caffeine can have a dehydrating effect on our bodies.

• Natural herbs like cayenne and Gingko Biloba can aid in the development of healthy circulation.• Green tea is rich in antioxidants that provide countless health benefits, including improved blood circulation.  Specifically, green tea helps to improve the function of endothelial cells.

• Dark chocolate contains cocoa, an ingredient widely known to improve blood flow.

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Blood cells in the vein. 3D render

• Eating too much salt can also have a negative impact on blood circulation. High salt intake can harden the arteries, which prevents blood from flowing freely through the body.

• Hydrotherapy, which simply means any treatment involving water, can improve the body’s circulatory system. Warm or hot water relaxes tense muscles and increases oxygen flow through the body.

• Over time, high stress levels can have a severe negative impact on health, including blood circulation. Luckily, much can be done to relieve stress and increase your overall feeling of calm.

• For many of us, moderate alcohol consumption is harmless and can even be healthy.

• Rebounding therapies can have a remarkable impact on blood circulation.

• Dry skin brushing can remove dead skin cells and improve overall circulation.

• Manual lymph drainage therapy unclogs swollen lymph nodes and eliminates waste to improve circulation.


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10 Health And Fitness Tips For Busy People

Here we can see the 10 health and fitness tips for busy people. We are the best water purifier service center in chennai. Call us at 9940492121


Anyone else feel exhausted by 2pm? Well, studies have shown that you don’t have to wait ’til bedtime to reenergize your body. In fact, many sources recommend getting in a 20-minute nap every day. According to The national sleep foundation, “This type of nap provides significant benefit for improved alertness and performance without leaving you feeling groggy or interfering with nighttime sleep.” Um, sign me up!

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Ahh a rare moment of free time. But since you’re busy almost every other minute of the day, you have no idea what to do with yourself! Browse Facebook? Check…my email? Nay! Write down a list of easy action items you can do during those brief moments of peace and keep it on your desk, where you’ll always see it. Some simple ideas are to meditate, enjoy a healthy snack, down a bottle of water, or go for a quick walk. So next time you have a ten-minute gap in your schedule, you’ll use it to replenish your mind + body instead of deteriorating it.


Plan on going for a run in the morning or getting to the gym for an early AM workout? Set out your workout clothes and any necessary gear next to your bed each night. It’ll be much easier knowing you don’t have to use your brain to find your socks or shorts as soon as you wake up.
If your workout clothes don’t inspire you to get up and go, place a mint or gum next to your alarm clock. Pop it in your mouth as soon as you wake up. The chewing gum alone will wake the brain up to help us focus at the task ahead (like crawling out of bed). Mint also helps to give the brain a jolt to awaken the senses and help inspire you to get your workout in.


While meal prepping can significantly increase the likelihood you’ll stick to your diet, it requires a bit of planning and effort. In the long run you’ll actually save time, money, and calories by cooking all of your meals in the beginning of the week. But if you’re not ready to commit to a full week’s worth of prep, creating on-the-go snacks and hunger-pang fighting treats can help you from overindulging at lunch and dinnertime. Separate grapes, low-sodium pretzels, and carrot sticks with hummus into zip lock baggies to hide in your desk drawer, fridge, or purse in time of need.


Drink up! A 2015 study published in the journal Obesity revealed drinking 2 cups of water 30 minutes before participants ate led to moderate weight loss over the course of 12 weeks. By simply drinking water when you first wake up, go out for lunch, or get home from work, you can improve your health without having to do much. Plus, keeping the body hydrated is essential to remove waste, lubricate joints, aid in digestion, and fight off headaches, dry mouth, and dizziness.

“The beauty of these findings is in the simplicity,” said the study’s co-author Dr. Helen Parretti, a researchers at the University of Birmingham, in a statement. “Just drinking a pint of water three times a day before your main meals may help reduce your weight. It’s something that doesn’t take much work to integrate into our busy everyday lives.”


I know, you’ve heard this about 900 times, but it’s so true! Since I sit in front of a computer for much of the day, I notice that I occasionally get headaches. Instead of taking pain relievers, I just drink more water! A lack of fluids can be a big cause of fatigue and head pains, but the solution is so simple. Drink up!


You may not have time to cook every day, but you likely do have a couple hours to prepare a stock of meals that you can have for the upcoming week. This way, you won’t be rushing around or have to resort to fast food. You can cook healthy options like fish and veggies and just keep it in ready-to-go tupperware containers in your fridge. Life changer.

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The stress you deal with every day, at work, at school, on the roads, and at home affects your health and your performances. You overeat, you can’t focus, and you are always irascible. Hypertension and anxiety are only one-step away, and with them, your overall health and well-being are compromised. To reduce stress, take up exercising, even in the form suggested above, meditate, laugh, give in to your hobbies, listen to music, and let it all out in writing!


It is easier to live healthily when everyone in your entourage shares your ideals, trust me. My former friends tried to persuade me to cheat on my diet and give up my exercising routines all the time, and turned their back on me when I refused. I found new friends, with similar habits, and living healthily feels a lot easier with their support.


Do you smoke, indulge in sweets, or exaggerate with alcohol? You should do something about it! I know it’s difficult, but think of how harmful smoking can be, how excessive consumption of sweets can lead to diabetes and obesity, and how alcohol and other abuses can undermine your health and your relationships.


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How to Maintain Your RO Water Purifier

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In the pollution- ridden and highly toxic atmosphere we live in today, it is necessary to ensure that we at least consume purified and good quality water. Since the human body majorly consists of water, it is essential that the water we drink is fresh and free of contaminants that may harm the body. One of the best ways to get purified water is by purchasing water purifier for the home. In the pollution- ridden and highly toxic atmosphere we live in today, it is necessary to ensure that we at least consume purified and good quality water. Since the human body majorly consists of water, it is essential that the water we drink is fresh and free of contaminants that may harm the body. One of the best ways to get purified water is by purchasing water purifier for the home.
RO water purifiers are known to be one of the best purifiers in the world. It is a simple and uncomplicated water purification process that filters impurities and contaminants from tap water to give clean and fresh water, ready for consumption. One may use the clean and healthy water for drinking.

While there are a number of water purifiers available in the market, it makes sense to purchase the RO water purifier. This is because it has numerous advantages over other usual purifiers on offer. RO based system maintains an equilibrium in water, and filters out only the harmful and disease causing contaminants. The minerals and good bacteria, which is required by the body, are retained by the filtration process.

1. Changing RO filters on a regular basis:

A water purifier generally has three to five filtration stages. The filters need to be changed periodically as they become filled with impurities and stop working.

• The pre-filtering stage consists of a filter cartridge that leaves out sand and other sediments. The pre-filtering stage prevents the reverse osmosis membrane from getting damaged. You must change the pre-filter cartridge every six to nine months.

• The second phase of the filtration process is a carbon filter that removes chlorine and bad odor. Chlorine also potentially damages the RO membrane and must also get changed periodically, after every six to nine months.

• The third phase is the reverse osmosis stage where the residual sediments are excluded from the membrane and drained. You can replace this membrane after two to three years. Either do it yourself or call RO experts from Urban Clap to fix this.  The condition of the RO membrane also depends on the quality of your local water supply.

2. Cleaning and sanitization:

The water purifier must be cleaned well by professionals as the system can get ruined during disconnection of the RO tank. Basically, your water purifier needs to go through a sanitization and a recharge once every year. Specific sanitization kits are also available and they can be purchased through various online stores if you feel like doing it manually. A user manual also comes with the water purifier system. In case you have lost it or have not been provided with one, here are the instructions for you: Begin by shutting off the mains supply of the water tank and then turning off the water supply from the shut-off valve. After that, the receiving water line connected to the RO tank is released by a wrench. You can use the sanitization kits for cleaning the insides of the tank. After cleaning, you need to reassemble the storage tank and finally, turn the water supply back on. You should avoid drinking the water right after reassembling the system.

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3. Installing a softener for extra efficient functioning:

Softeners work great with a water purifier systems because the RO membranes are delicate in front of water-hardening minerals such as calcium and magnesium. Together with an RO membrane, softener safeguards and extends the durability. You might also observe the corrosion caused by hard water in your own home. Adding softeners can be difficult as you need to know where to install it. Generally, professionals are required to do this process – some heavy amount of plumbing is needed as the softeners have to be placed at the point where the water gets into your house.

4. Keeping the exteriors of the water purifier clean

In order to make your system last longer, for around 12 to 15 years, you need to clean it. Using some soapy water from the outside of the water purifier quite regularly also does the job. Also, make sure you keep cleaning the tap that is attached to the water purifier often.At Urban Clap, you can find professionals who would come to your home and provide the necessary help to elongate the durability of your water purifier. Some of the procedures can be done by yourself but you also run the risk of ruining it while reassembling the system. You do not have to worry about having the perfect-sized wrenches while disengaging the tank from the water supply. We also provide organic sanitizing materials that clean the insides of your tank.If cleaning yourself, you’ll want to consult your owner’s manual for specific details on how to sanitize your system, but here’s the process in general terms:

• Shut off the main valve completely

• Next dispense all of the water from your RO faucet Remove the sediment  and carbon filters from their housing

• Remove the RO membrane from housing• Keep the filters out of their housings, but screw the housings back in place

• Pour about 1 cup of hydrogen peroxide into stage one housing

• Reattach all connections

• Turn the main valve back on

• Allow the system to run (without the filters, the storage tank will refill rapidly)

• Let the system run at least through 2 cycles

• Shut off the main valve again

• Install the new filters

• Let the tank fill back up and then drain one more time


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Osmosis is a phenomenon where pure water flows from a dilute solution through a semi permeable membrane to a higher concentrated solution. Semi permeable means that the membrane will allow small molecules and ions to pass through it but acts as a barrier to larger molecules or dissolved substances. To illustrate this, assume that a semi permeable membrane is placed between two compartments in a tank. Assume the membrane is permeable to water, but not to salt. If we place a salt solution in one compartment and pure water solution in the other one, the system will try to reach equilibrium by having the same concentration on both sides of the membrane. The only possible way to do this is for water to pass from the pure water compartment to the saltwater compartment.

reverse osmosis

As water passes through the membrane to the salt solution, the level of liquid in the saltwater compartment will rise until enough pressure, caused by the difference in levels between the two compartments, is generated to stop the osmosis. This pressure, equivalent to a force that the osmosis seems to exert in trying to equalize concentrations on both sides of the membrane, is called osmotic pressure.

If pressure greater than the osmotic pressure is applied to the high concentration the direction of water flow through the membrane can be reversed. This is called reverse osmosis (abbreviated RO). Note that this reversed flow produces pure water from the salt solution, since the membrane is not permeable to salt.If pressure greater than the osmotic pressure is applied to the high concentration the direction of water flow through the membrane can be reversed. This is called reverse osmosis (abbreviated RO). Note that this reversed flow produces pure water from the salt solution, since the membrane is not permeable to salt.

How Does Reverse Osmosis Work?

Diffusion is the movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration. Osmosis is a special case of diffusion in which the molecules are water and the concentration gradient occurs across a semi permeable membrane. The semi permeable membrane allows the passage of water, but not ions (e.g., Na+, Ca2+, Cl-) or larger molecules (e.g., glucose, urea, bacteria). Diffusion and osmosis are thermodynamically favorable and will continue until equilibrium is reached. Osmosis can be slowed, stopped, or even reversed if sufficient pressure is applied to the membrane from the ‘concentrated’ side of the membrane.Reverse osmosis occurs when the water is moved across the membrane against the concentration gradient, from lower concentration to higher concentration. To illustrate, imagine a semi permeable membrane with fresh water on one side and a concentrated aqueous solution on the other side. If normal osmosis takes place, the fresh water will cross the membrane to dilute the concentrated solution. In reverse osmosis, pressure is exerted on the side with the concentrated solution to force the water molecules across the membrane to the fresh water side.

reverse osmosis

What contaminants will Reverse Osmosis remove from water?Reverse Osmosis is capable of removing up to 99%+ of the dissolved salts (ions), particles, colloids, organics, bacteria and pyrogens from the feed water (although an RO system should not be relied upon to remove 100% of bacteria and viruses). An RO membrane rejects contaminants based on their size and charge. Any contaminant that has a molecular weight greater than 200 is likely rejected by a properly running RO system (for comparison a water molecule has a MW of 18). Likewise, the greater the ionic charge of the contaminant, the more likely it will be unable to pass through the RO membrane. For example, a sodium ion has only one charge (monovalent) and is not rejected by the RO membrane as well as calcium for example, which has two charges. Likewise, this is why an RO system does not remove gases such as CO2 very well because they are not highly ionized (charged) while in solution and have a very low molecular weight. Because an RO system does not remove gases, the permeate water can have a slightly lower than normal pH level depending on CO2 levels in the feed water as the CO2 is converted to carbonic acid.Reverse Osmosis is very effective in treating brackish, surface and ground water for both large and small flows applications. Some examples of industries that use RO water include pharmaceutical, boiler feed water, food and beverage, metal finishing and semiconductor manufacturing to name a few.RO Membrane CleaningRO membranes will inevitably require periodic cleaning, anywhere from 1 to 4 times a year depending on the feed water quality. As a general rule, if the normalized pressure drop or the normalized salt passage has increased by 15%, then it is time to clean the RO membranes. If the normalized permeate flow has decreased by 15% then it is also time to clean the RO membranes. You can either clean the RO membranes in place or have them removed from the RO system and cleaned off site by a service company that specializes in this service. It has been proven that offsite membrane cleaning is more effective at providing a better cleaning than onsite cleaning skids.RO membrane cleaning involves low and high pH cleaners to remove contaminants from the membrane. Scaling is addressed with low pH cleaners and organics, colloidal and biofouling are treated with a high pH cleaner. Cleaning RO membranes is not only about using the appropriate chemicals. There are many other factors involved such as flows, water temperature and quality, properly designed and sized cleaning skids and many other factors that an experienced service group must address in order to properly clean RO membranes.Benefits of reverse osmosis mechanism:

• Reverse Osmosis method gives a water taste better than others.

• After the water getting from the cleaning process of reverse osmosis has no contaminants.

• The reverse osmosis system consumes less amount of energy.

• Ro machine is small one compared to others so it is space saving one too.

• Ro system has a different level of purification.

• Ro system is one of the most economically system of purification.


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Types Of Water Resources

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Water resources are under major stress around the world. Rivers, lakes, and underground aquifers supply fresh water for irrigation, drinking, and sanitation, while the oceans provide habitat for a large share of the planet’s food supply. Today, however, expansion of agriculture, damming, diversion, over-use, and pollution threaten these irreplaceable resources in many parts of the globe. Providing safe drinking water for the more than 1 billion people who currently lack it is one of the greatest public health challenges facing national governments today. In many developing countries, safe water, free of pathogens and other contaminants, is unavailable to much of the population, and water contamination remains a concern even for developed countries with good water supplies and advanced treatment systems. And over-development, especially in coastal regions and areas with strained water supplies, is leading many regions to seek water from more and more distant sources.

Distribution of Freshwater Resources:

Freshwater accounts for only some 6 percent of the world’s water supply, but is essential for human uses such as drinking, agriculture, manufacturing, and sanitation.

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As discussed above, two-thirds of global freshwater is found underground. If you dig deeply enough anywhere on Earth, you will hit water. Some people picture groundwater as an underground river or lake, but in reality it is rarely a distinct water body (large caves in limestone aquifers are one exception). Rather, groundwater typically fills very small spaces (pores) within rocks and between sediment grains. The water table is the top of the saturated zone (Fig. 3). It may lie hundreds of meters deep in deserts or near the surface in moist ecosystems. Water tables typically shift from season to season as precipitation and transpiration levels change, moving up during rainy periods or periods of little transpiration and sinking during dry phases when the rate of recharge (precipitation minus evaporation and transpiration that infiltrates from the surface) drops. In temperate regions the water table tends to follow surface topography, rising under hills where there is little discharge to streams and falling under valleys where the water table intersects the surface in the form of streams, lakes, and springs.

Of all of this water, only about 2.5 percent is freshwater: the other 97.5 percent is saltwater. Almost 69 percent of freshwater resources are tied up in glaciers and ice caps, about 30 percent is groundwater, and a mere 0.27 percent is surface water. While all kinds of water resources are important for the survival of the planet, accessible freshwater is especially important for humans.

Saltwater resources:

As mentioned, saltwater is abundant in the surface of the planet. However, saltwater is currently not particularly useful when it comes to potable water supplies. Desalination plants, while they do exist, are scarce because the energy required for desalination makes the process extremely expensive.

That said, there are saltwater resources from which humans benefit, aside from beautiful ocean views. Saltwater fish are a staple in much of the world’s diet (although overfishing and pollution has put much of the marine life population at risk). Furthermore, tidal waters are being used as a source of hydroelectric energy. So, while saltwater is not helpful in dealing with scarce water supplies, it does provide resources that humans rely on.

Groundwater resources:

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Groundwater is the most plentiful of all freshwater resources. As water percolates into the ground through layers of soil, clay, and rock, some of it adheres to the topmost layers to provide water to plants. This water is in what is called the unsaturated, or zone. Most of the pores in the vadose zone are filled with air, rather than water. Gravity continues to move the water down through the ground. Eventually, the water reaches the saturated zone, where all the pores are filled with water. The separation between the saturated and unsaturated zone is called the water table. Aquifers are areas of permeable rock that hold water. Typically, aquifers are made of bedrock that has many fractures and connected pores, such as limestone, sandstone and gravel. Shale and clay layers are impermeable, and therefore make poor aquifers. An aquifer is “recharged” through precipitation from above percolating through the layers of soil and rock. Therefore, there is significant interaction between surface water and ground water. In turn, groundwater feeds surface water through springs, and surface water can also recharge groundwater supply. Most often, groundwater is accessed by humans via wells. To build a well, one must drill down past the water table. In most cases, a pump is placed in the bottom of the well, and it is pumped into homes, businesses and water treatment plants, where it is then dispersed.

As water is pumped from the ground, a cone of depression forms around the well. The groundwater from the surrounding area moves towards the well. Wells can run dry during times of drought, or if surrounding wells are pumping too much water, causing the cone of depression to be large. Water pumped from wells is generally very clean. The layers of soil, clay and rock acts as a natural filter. However, contaminants from nearby contaminated soils, leaky underground tanks, and septic systems can pollute a well, rendering it unusable.

Furthermore, salt water intrusion can occur when the rate of pumping near a shoreline exceeds the rate of recharge. Saltwater gets pulled from the ocean into the cone of depression, and enters the well. Subsidence, the gradual settling of the land due to continuous pumping and development, has also become an issue as groundwater is mined. This occurs when groundwater is pumped out faster than it can be replenished, and the sediment beneath becomes compacted. Subsidence is a permanent phenomenon. It can cause structural problems to foundations, an increased incidence of sinkholes and flooding problems. To top it off, subsidence is extremely costly. In some areas, such as the San Joaquin Valley in California, the land has subsided over 30 feet due to groundwater withdraw.

Surface water resources:

Surface water is the water that exists in streams and lakes. This water is primarily used for potable water supply, recreation, irrigation, industry, livestock, transportation and hydroelectric energy. Over 63 percent of the public water supply is withdrawn from surface water. Irrigation gets 58 percent of its water supply from surface water. Industry gets almost 98 percent of its water from surface water systems. Therefore, surface water conservation and quality is of the utmost importance. Watershed organizations continuously measure the stream flow and quality of surface water. Stream flow is monitored to warn of flooding and drought conditions. Water quality is very important, as the majority of the water used in the United States comes from surface water. It is the measure of how suitable the water is from a biological, chemical and physical perspective. Water quality can be impacted negatively by both natural and human causes: electrical conductivity, pH, temperature, phosphorus levels, dissolved oxygen levels, nitrogen levels and bacteria are tested as a measure of water quality. Water that runs off into the stream can naturally carry sediment, debris and pathogens. Turbidity, the measure of suspended sediment in a stream, is also a measure of water quality. The more turbid the water, the lower the water quality. Manmade contaminants such as gasoline, solvents, pesticides, and nitrogen from livestock can wash over the land and can leach in to waterways, degrading the quality of nearby waters. The Clean Water Act in the United States protects the quality of the stream and issues fines to those contributing to the degradation in water quality. By protecting and conserving the water supply, there is a greater guarantee of future water resources for human use.

Conclusion :

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Harmful Impurities Found In Drinking Water

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Water is our life line. One cannot imagine what would happen to mankind without water. If there is no water there would be no life on earth. The only living being that does not understand the importance of water is human, especially the industrialized countries.

An average person can spend weeks without eating food but he or she cannot spend 2-3 days without drinking water. It not only quenches your thirst but also plays a vital role in metabolism of the body by helping in digestion and excretion.

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Pure water is colorless, odorless and tasteless, it is chemically made of two components that is hydrogen and oxygen. Because water is a universal solvent, it dissolves almost everything which comes in contact with it. Pure and safe water is hard to get nowadays as there is a rapid increase in water pollution.

Since water is equated with life, attention must be paid to the impurities that can be present in the water. Without the access of safe and pure drinking water mankind will head towards many serious health issues and life threatening diseases.

Common Impurities Found In Drinking Water

The most common impurities found in water are listed below. Some of the impurities are caused by humans as the result of their day to day activities, some are from factories and industries and some are caused by cattle, livestock, and other organisms.


Biological contamination of water is caused by the presence of living organisms like algae, bacteria, protozoa, pathogens, microbes, Viruses, Parasites and their eggs (cysts), etc. known collectively known as microorganisms and commonly called ‘germs’. The health effects of drinking water contaminated with germs may be severe, but easily curable with modern day medicine. These minute living organisms in water are the causes of diseases from dirty water like typhoid fever, dysentery, cholera, gastroenteritis, etc.

Microorganisms are the most deadly impurities present in water that makes water extremely unfit for drinking and other purposes. Living organisms like bacteria, protozoa and other viruses are very harmful for living beings as they can lead to many fatal diseases and disorders. These microorganisms cannot be removed easily from water. They can survive even if we boil water at high temperature.

Suspended particles:

A portion of the suspended particles like sand and mud have a tendency to contaminate the water and make water to be turbid. The vast majority of these particles settle down over the time but some may stay suspended and must be evacuated after they have been filtered.

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These are the solids which are insoluble like dust, fine sand, clay, rust, etc. They remain suspended in the water and cause muddy water or cloudiness in water. ‘Total Suspended Solids’ or ‘TSS’ is the technical term used to measure how much of dirt there is in the muddy water. ‘Turbidity’ is the term to describe the muddy water and a unit of measurement of cloudy water is based on the transmission of light through the muddy or cloudy water.

Chemical content:

The problem with chemicals in water is that they dissolve in water and cannot be removed by simple filtration. ‘Total Dissolved Solids’ or ‘TDS’ is the technical term used to give a measure of the amount of dissolved matter in the water and is usually expressed as ‘ppm’ which stands for ‘parts per million’ or as ‘milligrams per liter (mg/L). To remove dissolved chemicals in water, it has to be either distilled or purified by using an RO water purifier. Some of the most dangerous chemicals found in drinking water in India are listed with an explanation as to how it affects our health in our page for toxic poisonous chemicals in water.


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What is the importance of water in our body?

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Have you ever wondered how much of your body is water? The percentage of water varies according to your age and gender. Here’s a look at how much water is inside you.

By weight, the average human adult male is approximately60% water and the average adult female is approximately 50%. There can be considerable variation in body water percentage based on a number of factors like age, health, weight, and sex. In a large study of adults of all ages and both sexes, the adult human body averaged ~65% water. However, this varied substantially by age, sex, and adiposity.

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The figure for water fraction by weight in this sample was found to be 58 ±8% water for males and 48 ±6% for females. The body water constitutes as much as 73% of the body weight of a newborn infant, whereas some obese people are as little as 45% water by weight. This is due to how fat tissue does not retain water as well as lean tissue. These statistical averages will vary with factors such as type of population, age of people sampled, number of people sampled, and methodology. So there is not, and cannot be, a figure that is exactly the same for all people, for this or any other physiological measure.

Most of animal body water is contained in various body fluids. These include intracellular fluid; extracellular fluid; plasma; interstitial fluid; and transcellular fluid. Water is also contained inside organs, in gastrointestinal, cerebrospinal, peritoneal, and ocular fluids. Adipose tissue contains about 10% of water, while muscle tissue contains about 75%.

In Netter’s Atlas of Human Physiology, body water is broken down into the following compartments: In Netter’s Atlas of Human Physiology, body water is broken down into the following compartments:

• Intracellular fluid (2/3 of body water) is fluid contained within cells. In a 72-kg body containing 40 liters of fluid, about 25 liters is intracellular, which amounts to 62.5%. Jackson’s texts states 70% of body fluid is intracellular.

• Extracellular fluid (1/3 of body water) is fluid contained in areas outside of cells. For a 40-litre body, about 15 liters is extracellular, which amounts to 37.5%.

• Plasma (1/5 of extracellular fluid). Of this 15 liters of extracellular fluid, plasma volume averages 3 liters, or 20%.

• Interstitial fluid (4/5 of extracellular fluid)

• Transcellular fluid (a.k.a. “third space,” normally ignored in calculations) contained inside organs, such as the gastrointestinal, cerebrospinal, peritoneal, and ocular fluids.

• The amount of water in the human body ranges from 50-75%.

• The average adult human body is 50-65% water.Most of the body’s water is in the intracellular fluid (2/3 of the body’s water). The other third is in the extracellular fluid (1/3 of the water).The amount of water varies, depending on the organ. Much of the water is in blood plasma (20% of the body’s total). According to a study performed by H.H. Mitchell, published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, the amount of water in the human heart and brain is 73%, the lungs are 83%, muscles and kidneys are 79%, the skin is 64%, and the bones are around 31%.

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For example, a 70-kg man is made up of about 42L of total water.

  • 28 liters is intracellular water
  • 14L is found in extracellular fluid of which
  • 3L is blood plasma,
  • 1L is the transcellular fluid (cerebrospinal fluid, ocular, pleural, peritoneal and synovial fluids).
  • 10L is the interstitial fluid (including lymph), which is an aqueous medium surrounding cells.

so majority(66%) of the  body water is inside the we are’t in the form of water.

  • Water is the primary building block of cells.
  • It acts as an insulator, regulating internal body temperature. This is partly because water has a high specific heat, plus the body uses perspiration and respiration to regulate temperature.
  • Water is needed to metabolize proteins and carbohydrates used as food. It is the primary component of saliva, used to digest carbohydrates and aid in swallowing food.
  • The compound lubricates joints.
  • Water insulates the brain, spinal cord, organs, and fetus. It acts as a shock absorber.
  • Water is used to flush waste and toxins from the body via urine.
  • Water is the principal solvent in the body. It dissolves minerals, soluble vitamins, and certain nutrients.
  • Water carries oxygen and nutrients to cells.


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