Activated Carbon Filters

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Activated carbon filters are generally employed in the process of removing organic compounds and/or extracting free chlorine from water, thereby making the water suitable for discharge or use in manufacturing processes.

Eliminating organics in potable water, such as humic and fulvic acid, prevents chlorine in the water from chemically reacting with the acids and forming trihalomethanes, a class of known carcinogens.Activated carbon filters are generally employed in the process of removing organic compounds and/or extracting free chlorine from water, thereby making the water suitable for discharge or use in manufacturing processes. Eliminating organics in potable water, such as humic and fulvic acid, prevents chlorine in the water from chemically reacting with the acids and forming trihalomethanes, a class of known carcinogens.

Activated Carbon (AC) filtration, as with any water treatment method, is not capable of removing every possible type of contaminant. For example, sodium, microbes, fluoride, and nitrates cannot be removed with AC filtration. Water softening also cannot be achieved with AC filters. In addition, heavy metals, such as lead, can only be removed with a very specific kind of activated carbon water treatment, which is typically used only in residential point-of-use filters.

activated carbon

High-Tech Filtration:There are many types of high-tech activated carbon filters available for industrial filtration systems. Activated carbon can exhibit varying performance characteristics depending upon the strata from which it is derived (e.g., bituminous or anthracite coal, bone char, coconut shell) and the way it is manufactured. The methods used to create the various AC materials are highly proprietary and lead to distinct differences across the range of media available to the industry. Water Professionals can specify high-tech filtration methods for the identified contaminates and the level of purity required. This is why it is critical to match up the correct activated carbon bed with the particular need.

This will achieve the most efficient filtering and the longest use interval for the equipment.Coconut shells and coal (anthracite or bituminous) are both organic sources of activated carbon. Carbon forms when an organic source is burned in an environment without oxygen. This process leaves only about 30% of the organic mass intact, driving off heavy organic molecules. Prior to being used for water treatment, the organic mass must then be “activated.” The process of activation opens up the carbon’s massive number of pores and further drives off unwanted molecules. The open pores are what allow the carbon to capture contaminants, known as “adsorption”. The rate of adsorption for a surface area of a just one pound of AC is equal to 60-150 acres!

There are two types of activation methods:Steam activationChemical activationActivated carbon water treatment is basically used for two water treatment purposes and each work in totally different ways.How it works?

1. Chlorine Removal: Activated carbon may be used to remove chlorine with little degradation or damage to the carbon. Dechlorination occurs rapidly and flow rates are typically high. However, this process requires an extensive amount of surface area, and organics in the water will eventually fill up and block the pores of the carbon. Ultimately, the activated carbon filter will need to be replaced as its ability to dechlorinate the water will slowly decline. Spent carbon can be re-activated; however, re-activated filters should only be used in waste-water treatment applications. One advantage to using AC is its low operating cost and virtual “fail safe” operation once installed. One disadvantage is that as the chlorine is removed from the topmost layer of the media, the AC provides a damp environment ideal for the growth and proliferation of bacteria. Bacteria can cause problems in medical applications, or when using carbon as a pretreatment to reverse osmosis.

2. Removal of Organic Matter: As water passes through an activated carbon filter, organic particles and chemicals are trapped inside through a process known “adsorption”.

The adsorption process depends upon 5 key factors:

1) Physical properties of the activated carbon (surface area and pore size distribution);

2) The chemical makeup of the carbon source (amount of hydrogen and oxygen);

3) The chemical makeup and concentration of the contaminant;

4) Water pH and temperature;

5) The length of time the water is exposed to the activated carbon filter (called empty bed contact time or EBCT).

activated carbon

Additional considerations for organics removal are discussed below:

1. Physical Properties: Pore size and distribution have the greatest impact on the effectiveness of AC filtration. The best filtration occurs when carbon pores are barely large enough to allow for the adsorption of contaminants (Figure 1). The type of contaminants an AC filter attracts will depend on the pore size of the filter, which varies based on the type of carbon used and the activation method. AC filters tend to work best for removing organic chemicals with larger molecules.

2. Chemical Properties: The surface of an activated carbon filter may also interact chemically with organic molecules. Electrical forces between the AC surface and the chemical nature of some contaminants may result in ion exchange or adsorption. The activation process determines, to a large extent, the chemical properties of the AC filter, making the filter attractive to various contaminants. Different activation processes will yield activated carbon with different chemical properties. For example, AC that has the least amount of oxygen in pore surfaces will absorb chloroform the best.

3. Contaminant Properties: Activated Carbon is best for use in filtering out large organic molecules. AC and organic molecules are similar materials, which means they will tend to associate with each other. This means organic chemicals will have a stronger tendency to associate with the AC filter rather than remaining dissolved in water. The less soluble organic molecules are, the more likely they are to be adsorbed. Smaller organic molecules fit the smallest pores and are held the tightest.

4. Concentration: The adsorption process can be affected by the concentration of organic contaminants. For example, with chloroform removal one AC filter may be more effective than another at filtering high concentrations of contaminants, and less effective at filtering low concentration of contaminants. Consult with the manufacturer to determine how an activated carbon filter will perform at different concentration levels for a specific chemical.

5. Water Temperature and pH: The rate of adsorption will usually be higher at lower temperatures and pH levels. Chemical reactions and chemical forms are closely related to water temperature and pH. In most cases, organic chemicals are more adsorbable as temperatures and pH levels decrease.

6. Length of Exposure: The length of time in which the contaminant is in contact with the AC filter also influences the adsorption process – the longer the length of contact, the greater the number of contaminants that will be removed. A greater amount of active carbon and a slower flow rate will improve the effectiveness of the filtration process. Bed depth and flow rate are critical design parameters. Carbon filtration is often engineered to provide a specified residence time of water in contact with the carbon bed, referred to as empty bed contact time or EBCT.

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REVERSE OSMOSIS

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Osmosis is a phenomenon where pure water flows from a dilute solution through a semi permeable membrane to a higher concentrated solution. Semi permeable means that the membrane will allow small molecules and ions to pass through it but acts as a barrier to larger molecules or dissolved substances. To illustrate this, assume that a semi permeable membrane is placed between two compartments in a tank. Assume the membrane is permeable to water, but not to salt. If we place a salt solution in one compartment and pure water solution in the other one, the system will try to reach equilibrium by having the same concentration on both sides of the membrane. The only possible way to do this is for water to pass from the pure water compartment to the saltwater compartment.

reverse osmosis

As water passes through the membrane to the salt solution, the level of liquid in the saltwater compartment will rise until enough pressure, caused by the difference in levels between the two compartments, is generated to stop the osmosis. This pressure, equivalent to a force that the osmosis seems to exert in trying to equalize concentrations on both sides of the membrane, is called osmotic pressure.

If pressure greater than the osmotic pressure is applied to the high concentration the direction of water flow through the membrane can be reversed. This is called reverse osmosis (abbreviated RO). Note that this reversed flow produces pure water from the salt solution, since the membrane is not permeable to salt.If pressure greater than the osmotic pressure is applied to the high concentration the direction of water flow through the membrane can be reversed. This is called reverse osmosis (abbreviated RO). Note that this reversed flow produces pure water from the salt solution, since the membrane is not permeable to salt.

How Does Reverse Osmosis Work?

Diffusion is the movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration. Osmosis is a special case of diffusion in which the molecules are water and the concentration gradient occurs across a semi permeable membrane. The semi permeable membrane allows the passage of water, but not ions (e.g., Na+, Ca2+, Cl-) or larger molecules (e.g., glucose, urea, bacteria). Diffusion and osmosis are thermodynamically favorable and will continue until equilibrium is reached. Osmosis can be slowed, stopped, or even reversed if sufficient pressure is applied to the membrane from the ‘concentrated’ side of the membrane.Reverse osmosis occurs when the water is moved across the membrane against the concentration gradient, from lower concentration to higher concentration. To illustrate, imagine a semi permeable membrane with fresh water on one side and a concentrated aqueous solution on the other side. If normal osmosis takes place, the fresh water will cross the membrane to dilute the concentrated solution. In reverse osmosis, pressure is exerted on the side with the concentrated solution to force the water molecules across the membrane to the fresh water side.

reverse osmosis

What contaminants will Reverse Osmosis remove from water?Reverse Osmosis is capable of removing up to 99%+ of the dissolved salts (ions), particles, colloids, organics, bacteria and pyrogens from the feed water (although an RO system should not be relied upon to remove 100% of bacteria and viruses). An RO membrane rejects contaminants based on their size and charge. Any contaminant that has a molecular weight greater than 200 is likely rejected by a properly running RO system (for comparison a water molecule has a MW of 18). Likewise, the greater the ionic charge of the contaminant, the more likely it will be unable to pass through the RO membrane. For example, a sodium ion has only one charge (monovalent) and is not rejected by the RO membrane as well as calcium for example, which has two charges. Likewise, this is why an RO system does not remove gases such as CO2 very well because they are not highly ionized (charged) while in solution and have a very low molecular weight. Because an RO system does not remove gases, the permeate water can have a slightly lower than normal pH level depending on CO2 levels in the feed water as the CO2 is converted to carbonic acid.Reverse Osmosis is very effective in treating brackish, surface and ground water for both large and small flows applications. Some examples of industries that use RO water include pharmaceutical, boiler feed water, food and beverage, metal finishing and semiconductor manufacturing to name a few.RO Membrane CleaningRO membranes will inevitably require periodic cleaning, anywhere from 1 to 4 times a year depending on the feed water quality. As a general rule, if the normalized pressure drop or the normalized salt passage has increased by 15%, then it is time to clean the RO membranes. If the normalized permeate flow has decreased by 15% then it is also time to clean the RO membranes. You can either clean the RO membranes in place or have them removed from the RO system and cleaned off site by a service company that specializes in this service. It has been proven that offsite membrane cleaning is more effective at providing a better cleaning than onsite cleaning skids.RO membrane cleaning involves low and high pH cleaners to remove contaminants from the membrane. Scaling is addressed with low pH cleaners and organics, colloidal and biofouling are treated with a high pH cleaner. Cleaning RO membranes is not only about using the appropriate chemicals. There are many other factors involved such as flows, water temperature and quality, properly designed and sized cleaning skids and many other factors that an experienced service group must address in order to properly clean RO membranes.Benefits of reverse osmosis mechanism:

• Reverse Osmosis method gives a water taste better than others.

• After the water getting from the cleaning process of reverse osmosis has no contaminants.

• The reverse osmosis system consumes less amount of energy.

• Ro machine is small one compared to others so it is space saving one too.

• Ro system has a different level of purification.

• Ro system is one of the most economically system of purification.

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What is the importance of water in our body?

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Have you ever wondered how much of your body is water? The percentage of water varies according to your age and gender. Here’s a look at how much water is inside you.

By weight, the average human adult male is approximately60% water and the average adult female is approximately 50%. There can be considerable variation in body water percentage based on a number of factors like age, health, weight, and sex. In a large study of adults of all ages and both sexes, the adult human body averaged ~65% water. However, this varied substantially by age, sex, and adiposity.

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The figure for water fraction by weight in this sample was found to be 58 ±8% water for males and 48 ±6% for females. The body water constitutes as much as 73% of the body weight of a newborn infant, whereas some obese people are as little as 45% water by weight. This is due to how fat tissue does not retain water as well as lean tissue. These statistical averages will vary with factors such as type of population, age of people sampled, number of people sampled, and methodology. So there is not, and cannot be, a figure that is exactly the same for all people, for this or any other physiological measure.

Most of animal body water is contained in various body fluids. These include intracellular fluid; extracellular fluid; plasma; interstitial fluid; and transcellular fluid. Water is also contained inside organs, in gastrointestinal, cerebrospinal, peritoneal, and ocular fluids. Adipose tissue contains about 10% of water, while muscle tissue contains about 75%.

In Netter’s Atlas of Human Physiology, body water is broken down into the following compartments: In Netter’s Atlas of Human Physiology, body water is broken down into the following compartments:

• Intracellular fluid (2/3 of body water) is fluid contained within cells. In a 72-kg body containing 40 liters of fluid, about 25 liters is intracellular, which amounts to 62.5%. Jackson’s texts states 70% of body fluid is intracellular.

• Extracellular fluid (1/3 of body water) is fluid contained in areas outside of cells. For a 40-litre body, about 15 liters is extracellular, which amounts to 37.5%.

• Plasma (1/5 of extracellular fluid). Of this 15 liters of extracellular fluid, plasma volume averages 3 liters, or 20%.

• Interstitial fluid (4/5 of extracellular fluid)

• Transcellular fluid (a.k.a. “third space,” normally ignored in calculations) contained inside organs, such as the gastrointestinal, cerebrospinal, peritoneal, and ocular fluids.

• The amount of water in the human body ranges from 50-75%.

• The average adult human body is 50-65% water.Most of the body’s water is in the intracellular fluid (2/3 of the body’s water). The other third is in the extracellular fluid (1/3 of the water).The amount of water varies, depending on the organ. Much of the water is in blood plasma (20% of the body’s total). According to a study performed by H.H. Mitchell, published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, the amount of water in the human heart and brain is 73%, the lungs are 83%, muscles and kidneys are 79%, the skin is 64%, and the bones are around 31%.

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For example, a 70-kg man is made up of about 42L of total water.

  • 28 liters is intracellular water
  • 14L is found in extracellular fluid of which
  • 3L is blood plasma,
  • 1L is the transcellular fluid (cerebrospinal fluid, ocular, pleural, peritoneal and synovial fluids).
  • 10L is the interstitial fluid (including lymph), which is an aqueous medium surrounding cells.

so majority(66%) of the  body water is inside the cells.so we are’t in the form of water.

  • Water is the primary building block of cells.
  • It acts as an insulator, regulating internal body temperature. This is partly because water has a high specific heat, plus the body uses perspiration and respiration to regulate temperature.
  • Water is needed to metabolize proteins and carbohydrates used as food. It is the primary component of saliva, used to digest carbohydrates and aid in swallowing food.
  • The compound lubricates joints.
  • Water insulates the brain, spinal cord, organs, and fetus. It acts as a shock absorber.
  • Water is used to flush waste and toxins from the body via urine.
  • Water is the principal solvent in the body. It dissolves minerals, soluble vitamins, and certain nutrients.
  • Water carries oxygen and nutrients to cells.

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10 Benefits of 7 Day Water Fasting[2018]

Sigma aquaguard is the best aquaguard service center in chennai. Water fast is when a person does not eat and drinks nothing other than water.

There is no set time that water fasting should last for, but medical advice generally suggests anywhere from 24 hours to 3 days as the maximum time to go without food.

Benefits of water fast

Throughout history, people have undertaken fasts for spiritual or religious reasons. But, water fasting is now popular in the natural health and wellness movements, often alongside meditation.

The Zero Calorie Diet:

The fast is intense and grueling due to the emotional challenges involved. Still, it manages to correct minor disruptions in the body as it helps purify the system. When a person takes only water, he or she is consuming ‘zero’ calories. In a body loaded with numerous toxins, both internal and external, the tissues struggle to eliminate the wastes. Our food habits further add excessive calories, thereby slowing down metabolism. Taking virtually no calories for 2 to 7 days was found to revive our tissues and system functions.

Who do fast?

Water fasts are advised for those who can handle several days of intense calorie deprivation. Individuals who have taken a 2-day fast earlier would find it easier to take a 4-day or 7-day fast. Hence, beginners can start with a 2-day water fast. Patients with medical issues require medical consultation before embarking on this plan.

Obese people trying to lose weight can take the fast and observe immediate results. Although, it is necessary to note that the lost pounds might return once the calories come back into your diet. Underweight people might find the fast too grueling, and can experience more fatigue compared to others. Some might face complications during the fast, and they need to stop it immediately.

benefits of water diet

What Kind of Water on the Fast?

Since water is the only thing we consumed during the fast, it was important to make sure we had high quality water. We have a whole house filter and a 14-stage under the sink filter, so we were fine with drinking our tap water. Some people prefer to use distilled water while fasting.

Electrolyte depletion is one of the bigger risks of fasting so we added some high quality Himalayan salt to a couple of glasses of our water each day. This is supposed to help with the headaches and tiredness.

The amount of water is also important during a fast. Drinking too much water can cause problems, as can not drinking enough. Sources vary on the exact amount but it ranges between 2-4 quarts a day. I just drank when thirsty and added a pinch of salt to a couple glasses a day.

Benefits of 7 Day Water Fasting:

  1. Having no calories burns approximately 1 pound of fat per day, making it the fastest weight loss method.
  2. Increases insulin sensitivity as there is less fluctuation in blood sugar levels.
  3. Improves body repair, recovery and healing from decreased inflammation.
  4. Lowers stress levels, decreases blood pressure and rejuvenates the body.
  5. Increases immunity due to better cell resistance.
  6. Enables reduction in cancer cell proliferation.
  7. Slows down aging and cognitive decline.
  8. Lowers the risk of heart disease.
  9. Solves digestive problems such as gastritis, irritable bowels, constipation, diarrhea, gas, dyspepsia, and loss of appetite.
  10. Water fasting is also an opportunity for emotional and spiritual introspection. People find they have better control over their thoughts and diet, after they are done with this fast.

Water Fasting Side Effects:

  • Without calories or other nutrients from food, you’ll likely feel tired and lethargic on the water fast.
  • You may also feel dizzy and lightheaded and experience headaches, low blood pressure and abnormal heart rhythms, according to the American Cancer Society.
  • The organization also notes that these effects can make driving or operating heavy machinery more dangerous than usual and that fasting can even increase the risk of an attack in people who suffer from gout.
  • In addition, the water fast might make gallstone symptoms worse.
  • If your water fast lasts for days or longer, the risks grow dramatically. You may compromise your immune system and organ function, possibly damaging the kidneys and liver.
  • If you are continuing your metabolism will also slow as your body tries to conserve energy, so you’ll start burning fewer calories than you did in your solid-food days. Once you start eating normally again, the pounds will pile back on quickly and you may even wind up weighing more than you did when you started your fast.

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In olden days how was drinking water purified?

In olden days how was drinking water purified? Let us see some olden purification method. We are from best aquaguard water purifier service in chennai.

A safe and convenient water supply plays a vital role in public health and well-being of the society. While there are numerous conventional water treatment technologies available, for a huge population in rural areas of developing countries, these systems would be inappropriate or too expensive. Basically, all such techniques aim to remove visible impurities such as leaves, twigs, or large suspended particles from water collected from unprotected local sources.

These traditional water treatment techniques range from simple filtration using a sieve or cloth to clarification and filtration using naturally available stone filters and plant materials. Coarse media filters, gravel filters, coconut fiber filters, etc., are examples of such developments. There are also household techniques available to remove even some specific water pollutants such as fluorides that can greatly enhance the safety of usage of water for drinking purposes in water scarce regions where there is no other appropriate water source.

Traditional Water treatment methods:

All over the world, rural communities have adopted simple and rudimentary treatment techniques that mainly aim at filtering out the visible impurities from the water collected from local sources.

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Some of the traditional treatment methods are,

  • Filtration through winnowing sieve (used widely in Mali).
  • Filtration through cloth (commonly used in villages in India, Mali and the southern part of Niger).
  • Filtration through clay vessels (used in Egypt).
  • Clarification and filtration through plant material (commonly used in Tamil Nadu and Kerala, India).
  • Jempeng stone filter method (used in Bali, Indonesia).

Filtration through Winnowing Sieve:

This type of filtration is used when the water source is polluted by wind-borne impurities such as dry leaves, stalks, and coarse particles. The raw water is passed through a winnowing sieve, and the impurities are filtered. This type of filter is widely used in villages of the Bamaka area, Mali. This method cannot be used when the raw water is highly turbid or muddy, since the sieve cannot filter fine suspended particles in raw water.

Filtration through Cloth:

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Thin white cotton cloth is used as the filter medium. This filter can filter raw water containing such impurities as plant debris, insects, dust particles or coarse mud particles. Filtration of suspended particles present in water can be achieved only to a very small extent. Therefore, this type of filtration is not suitable for highly turbid water. It is most suitable for filtration of well water.

Filtration through Clay Vessels:

                  

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Clay vessels with a suitable pore size are sometimes used to filter highly turbid water. Turbid water is collected in a big clay jar and allowed to settle down. Then the water in the jar will trickle through the porous clay wall of the jar. This method of water treatment is common in Egypt.

 Filtration through Plant Parts:

 Highly turbid water with fine suspended and colloidal particles are first coalesced and settled out using the nuts of a locally available plant, in some of the southern districts of Tamil Nadu, India, which is then filtered using cloth filters. Studies have found that the nuts excrete coagulant chemicals upon soaking which does the trick. Similarly, wiry roots of the rhizomes from the ‘ramachham’ are placed in a clay jar, which has tiny holes in its bottom. Raw water is poured into this jar, and then the water is allowed to filter thorough this layer of roots. The water then trickles through the tiny holes at the bottom of the jar. The filtered water is collected at the bottom of the jar. Usually this filtered water is very clear and has a pleasant smell. This type of water filtration is common in southern districts of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, India.

Jempeng Stone Filter Method:

This type of water filtration method is developed in Saringan batu Jempeng, Bali, Indonesia. Here, a small artificial pond or a by-pass channel is cut by the side to an irrigation canal, which carries muddy water.  Jempeng stone filter units are placed in the artificial ponds. The filter unit is carved out of a porous material called ‘cadas’. This unit is placed on the top of a stone-supporting gravel bed. Muddy water filters through the porous wall of the filter unit and gets collected inside.. It can treat even highly turbid water. The main feature of this unit is that the only cost involved is the investment cost. Practically there is no operational or maintenance cost such as for cleaning.

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Is Groundwater pure?

Ground water have good minerals. And also there are some impurities are there. We are the best aquaguard service center in chennai. We offer general service for your water purifier.

When rain falls to the ground, some of it flows along the land surface to streams, rivers or lakes, some moisturizes the ground. Part of this water is used by vegetation; some evaporates and returns to the atmosphere. Part of the water also seeps into the ground, flows through the unsaturated zone and reaches the water table, which is an imaginary surface from where the ground beneath is saturated.

Why is groundwater so important?

Groundwater counts in average for one third of the fresh water consumed by humans, but at some parts of the world, this percentage can reach up to 100%. It is a very important natural resource and has a significant role in the economy and the main source of water for irrigation and the food industry. In general groundwater is a reliable source of water for the agriculture and can be used in a flexible manner:

For the environment groundwater plays a very important role in keeping the water level and flow into rivers, lakes and wetlands. Specially during the drier months when there is little direct recharge from rainfall, it provides the environment with groundwater flow through the bottom of these water bodies and becomes essential for the wild life and plants living in these environment. Groundwater also plays a very relevant role in sustain navigation through inland waters in the drier seasons. By discharging groundwater into the rivers it helps keeping the water levels higher.

 

Ground water serves many purposes

Fresh groundwater was used for many important purposes, with the largest amount going toward irrigating crops, such as the delicious eggplants, squash, and rutabagas that children love to have for dinner. Local city and county water departments withdraw a lot of groundwater for public uses, such as for delivery to homes, businesses, and industries, as well as for community uses such as fire fighting, water services at public buildings, and for keeping local residents happy by keeping community swimming pools full of water. Industries and mining facilities also used a lot of groundwater. In 2010, 19 percent of freshwater usage by industries came from groundwater, and 50 percent of freshwater usage at mines was groundwater. The majority of water used for self-supplied domestic and livestock purposes came from groundwater sources.

Is ground water pure?

This question seems to have attracted a lot of poor-quality answers from people ignorant about what constitutes good drinking water quality.

Ground water contains mainly minerals. So it is good. It is filtered by the great nature in the different layers of soil. So it safer and healthier than fresh water found on surface of the earth in lakes ,ponds ,Rivers ,etc as it is always in contact to the air and so contains many bacteria also as well harmful gases and substance like so2, so3,compounds of nitrogen, co etc. beside the taste of ground water is sweet which enhance your mood , makes you happy and allows your will to drink more water and hence is fills the deficiency of water in the body which prevents many disease like ulcers ,digestive problems ,enhance brain efficiency , etc.

But today due to pollution, the ground water is getting contaminated. Many harmful pollutants get mixed with it today.

Earlier people used to drink ground water throughout their lives as there were no purifying machines available or out of budget. They were stronger than we are especially in physical strength and disease fighting strength or will power.

Many of purifying machines purify water too much making it bitter to taste and unhealthy. It removes the entire mineral from it also the good ones.

Ground water purification

With population of over a billion, India is a major user of groundwater. Currently, the annual extraction of ground water in India is estimated to be about 210bcm (billion cubic meters), the highest in the world. India is also the world’s the biggest user of groundwater for irrigation. There is significant use of groundwater in almost all parts of the country except in Orissa, Assam, Bihar, Chattisgarh, Jharkhand and Jammu and Kashmir. Another more worrying dimension that has emerged in the past two decade is a direct link between industrial, agricultural and household activities, and contamination of groundwater.

Contamination of the water table is caused mainly through dissolution of two broad classes of chemicals

  • Inorganic minerals, salts, and metals
  • Synthetic organic compounds

Most inorganic compounds are harmless at the concentrations commonly found in unpolluted groundwater, and some, such as potassium, magnesium, and calcium, are even beneficial to human health. Others, such as arsenic, barium, or mercury, can occur naturally in concentrations that are considered harmful. Human activities are another source of inorganic substances in groundwater. Bacteria, viruses, or parasites can seep into the groundwater from sources such as septic systems, leaky sewer lines, barnyards, or fields spread with manure

Organic compounds are chemicals containing carbon and other elements such as hydrogen, nitrogen, or chlorine. Many occur in nature, and many others are manufactured for a wide range of purposes, including cleaning fluids, wood preservatives, and pesticides. The production of synthetic organic compounds has increased more than 10-fold in the past 40 years, and some of these chemicals have become significant groundwater contaminants.

 

Studies estimate that nearly 59% of all districts in India have problems related to either the quantitative availability or quality of groundwater. Out of the 593 districts in India from which data is available, several have problems due to high fluoride content (203 districts), iron content (206 districts), salinity (137 districts), nitrate content (109 districts) and arsenic content (35 districts) in their ground water sources. Biological contamination causing intestinal disorders are present throughout the country.

There are two distinct separation technologies – ion exchange resins and Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane elements – which can be either used separately or together to bring ground water to safe levels.

Synthetic ion exchange resins are polymers that are capable of exchanging particular ions within the polymer with ions in a solution that is passed through them. They are used either to soften the water or to remove the mineral content altogether, but also for various other applications including separating out some elements. Water purification using this method is environmentally friendly because it deals with substances already occurring in water. The long life of resins and low maintenance of the purification equipment makes this a very attractive method.

Reverse osmosis (RO) is a membrane-technology filtration method that removes many types of large molecules and ions from solutions by applying pressure to the solution when it is on one side of a selective membrane. The result is that the solute is retained on the pressurized side of the membrane and the pure solvent passes to the other side.

The situation with groundwater being the way it is, using water straight from the source is no longer an option. What really is a matter of choice is the type of purification system one would use.

Now we are pushed to use water purifier. Because the water is contaminated with pollution. So we must use the purifier.   Aquaguard tollfree number chennai is 9940492121.

Source:

https://www.un-igrac.org/what-groundwater