1. Drink a glass after every bathroom break. Start a habit by linking water with some of your most common daily activities.
Getting up from your desk for a bathroom break? Stop by the kitchen to chug a glass of water after leaving the restroom. Every time you pass the water cooler, fill up a cup.
2. Drinking a full cup before each meal can curb calorie intake because it causes you to feel full.
3. Dilute sugary drinks with water and ice.
If drinking juice, lemonade, or iced tea is a daily habit, water down your sips with H20 and a healthy helping of ice (aim for a one-to-one ratio). You’ll still get the sweetness you’re craving with a healthy dose of the water your body needs.
4. Eat water-rich foods. One sneaky way to increase the amount of water you consume on a daily basis:
eat your H2O. Add fruits and vegetables with high water content to your grocery shopping list.
5. Buy a bottle of water and carry it with you.
One of the main reasons that many of us don’t drink enough fluids is because we don’t have water with us. Keeping a bottle to hand to help keep you hydrated. Once your plastic water bottle is empty refill it and keep it in the fridge.
6. Drink water on your nights out.
A really great tip to drink more water is to substitute every other alcoholic drink on a night out with a glass of water. This is much healthier for your body and will save you from feeling horrible the next morning.
7. Drink through a straw and keep sipping throughout the day. Buy a crazy straw to make sure you do this or buy a water bottle with a sip filter.
8. Try different types of water like, spring, mineral, sparking and flavored water.
You can jazz up water with one of these variations. Remember, whatever helps to make water more enjoyable for you is a good thing.
9.Keep a bottle of water with you in the car and take a sip while you are stuck in traffic.
Driving dehydrates us especially in the hot weather and with the air con that dries out the air. On long car journeys make sure you set reminders on your phone as alerts to have a good drink of water every 30 minutes. In warm weather increase this to 15 minutes.
10.Add deadlines to your water drinking.
Aim to drink a certain amount by 10am, midday, 2pm and in the evening to make sure you hit your target, like this from Life hacker. Use a DIY water bottle with deadlines on so you know when and how to reach your targets during the day. In the evening, you can substitute cold water with a warm water drink to reach your goals.
1. The average adult heart beats 72 times a minute; 100,000 times a day; 3,600,000 times a year; and 2.5 billion times during a lifetime.
2. The volume of blood pumped by the heart can vary over a wide range, from five to 30 liters per minute.
3. The fetal heart rate is approximately twice as fast as an adult’s, at about 150 beats per minute. By the time a fetus is 12 weeks old, its heart pumps an amazing 60 pints of blood a day.
4. The heart does the most physical work of any muscle during a lifetime. The power output of the heart ranges from 1-5 watts. While the quadriceps can produce 100 watts for a few minutes, an output of one watt for 80 years is equal to 2.5 gigajoule.
5. Five percent of blood supplies the heart, 15-20% goes to the brain and central nervous system, and 22% goes to the kidneys.
6. The heart pumps oxygenated blood through the aorta (the largest artery) at about 1 mile (1.6 km) per hour. By the time blood reaches the capillaries, it is moving at around 43 inches (109 cm) per hour.
7. The term “heartfelt” originated from Aristotle’s philosophy that the heart collected sensory input from the peripheral organs through the blood vessels. It was from those perceptions that thought and emotions arose.
8. A woman’s heart typically beats faster than a man’s. The heart of an average man beats approximately 70 times a minute, whereas the average woman has a heart rate of 78 beats per minute.
9. Some heavy snorers may have a condition called obtrusive sleep apnea (OSA), which can negatively affect the heart.
10. Blood is actually a tissue. When the body is at rest, it takes only six seconds for the blood to go from the heart to the lungs and back, only eight seconds for it to go the brain and back, and only 16 seconds for it to reach the toes and travel all the way back to the heart.
11. The right atrium holds about 3.5 tablespoons of blood. The right ventricle holds slightly more than a quarter cup of blood. The left atrium holds the same amount of blood as the right, but its walls are three times thicker.
12. A newborn baby has about one cup of blood in circulation. An adult human has about four to five quarts which the heart pumps to all the tissues and to and from the lungs in about one minute while beating 75 times.
13. During an average lifetime, the heart will pump nearly 1.5 million barrels of blood—enough to fill 200 train tank cars.
14. Laughing is good for your heart. It reduces stress and gives a boost to your immune system
15. The youngest person to receive heart surgery was only a minute old. She had a heart defect that many babies don’t survive. Her surgery was successful, but she’ll eventually need heart transplant.
1. Studies suggest that people who exercise in the morning are relatively slimmer and healthier than the ones who exercise later in the day. So carry the feel good hormones and energy throughout the day by doing your exercise in the morning.
2. People who all are want to lose their weight, their main meals are well managed, however, snack is an area where most fall for unnecessary food and jeopardise weight loss. It’s a great idea to pack your own snack at work or on the go.
3. Never, Ever Drink Sweetened Soda. But go ahead, have a glass of wine now and then. Low-carb is fine, too, in moderation.
4. Run Intervals: It’s easier to alternate between hard and easy running instead of going for a long run—especially if you don’t like running. Plus, you’ll be done faster and burn more fat.
5. Skipping breakfast won’t help you lose weight. You could miss out on essential nutrients and you may end up snacking more throughout the day because you feel hungry.
6. Fruit and vegetables are low in calories and fat, and high in fibre – 3 essential ingredients for successful weight loss. They also contain plenty of vitamins and minerals.
7. Cut down on alcohol. A standard glass of wine can contain as many calories as a piece of chocolate. Over time, drinking too much can easily contribute to weight gain.
8. Sleep is a cornerstone of weight management because of the impact it has on your hormones that control how you burn fat, how you store fat, and how you’re maintaining muscle. The better your hormone balance, the better your weight management.
9. Also, most of the time, the snacks which are high in salt are most probably fried too, which is a total no-no if you want to lose weight. Veggie sticks or homemade crisps with salt and fat control work the best.
10. Walking when the weather’s nice is a super-easy way to keep fit, says Diane Virginias, a certified nursing assistant from New York. “I enjoy the seasons,” she says, adding that even when she’s short on time she’ll go out for a few minutes. “Even a five minute walk is a five minute walk.”
What is Blood Circulation?What is Blood Circulation?Blood circulation is the constant movement of blood throughout the body, made possible by the pumping of the heart. As blood circulates, it delivers essential nutrients and oxygen to all organs and cells in the body. Blood flows through a series of tubes called blood vessels. Arteries are the vessels that carry blood away from the heart, while veins carry blood back toward the heart. Certain parts of the circulatory system present particular challenges to the body.
Signs of Poor Blood CirculationSpecific signs of poor blood circulation include:
1. Diminished energy and feelings of tiredness.
2. Numbness, tingling, or cold sensations in the hands and/or feet.
3. Leg cramps and/or aches.
4. Visible skin discoloration, swelling, or ulcers in the leg.
5. Recurrent calf pain.
6. Sores, cuts, or scratches that heal unusually slowly.
7. Hypertension and high blood pressure.
8. Loss of appetite.
9. Erectile dysfunction.
How to Improve Blood CirculationIt isn’t always necessary to take prescription drugs to improve health, and improving blood circulation doesn’t have to be difficult. Improving your circulatory system typically requires adding certain foods to your diet and activities to your routine, while eliminating other foods and behaviors. Sometimes, simply cutting back on unhealthy habits and enjoying certain treats in moderation is enough to dramatically improve circulation.
21 Natural Ways to Improve Blood Circulation
• Eating super fruits is the good remedy for improve our blood circulation. Regular consumption of these delicious snacks makes capillary walls stronger and prevents poor circulation. High-fiber goji berries have a high fiber content, which strengthens the immune system and improves overall circulation function. The classic summer treat is high in lycopene, an antioxidant that has been linked to improved blood circulation.
• Far infrared radiation therapy harnesses the sun’s natural healing energy to improve blood circulation, relieve tension, reduce inflammation, strengthen the immune system, and more. The far infrared rays penetrate the body, triggering the release of waste and toxins, which often block the circulatory system from functioning effectively.
• Doctors warn not to wear tight clothing for extended periods of time. Skinny jeans and other extremely tight garments can hinder circulation. Loose or lightly fitted clothing ensures that blood can circulate normally through the body.
• Exercise is a great way to improve circulation. Any activity that gets your blood pumping, from jogging to biking to dancing, will have a major impact. Exercise strengthens the entire cardiovascular system and enables the heart to pump blood through the circulatory system more effectively.
• If you don’t smoke, decide right now that you will never start. If you already smoke, know that it’s essential for your overall health to quit as soon as possible. The benefits of quitting will begin as soon as you stop smoking and will continue over time.
• A good massage can stimulate blood flow in a way that is remarkably similar to exercise. This direction promotes the flow of venous blood and lymph throughout the body and improves overall circulation.
• Leg elevation is a good way to directly improve circulation as well as to promote relaxation.
• Drinking plenty of water ensures that the entire circulatory system continues to work efficiently. Our organs need to stay hydrated to function at their highest levels. Even our blood is, in large part, made up of water.
• Eating a variety of healthy nuts is an excellent way to keep your blood circulating at optimal levels.• While some research has indicated that moderate amounts of coffee may improve cardiovascular health, this finding is not necessarily true for all caffeinated drinks. Caffeine can have a dehydrating effect on our bodies.
• Natural herbs like cayenne and Gingko Biloba can aid in the development of healthy circulation.• Green tea is rich in antioxidants that provide countless health benefits, including improved blood circulation. Specifically, green tea helps to improve the function of endothelial cells.
• Dark chocolate contains cocoa, an ingredient widely known to improve blood flow.
• Eating too much salt can also have a negative impact on blood circulation. High salt intake can harden the arteries, which prevents blood from flowing freely through the body.
• Hydrotherapy, which simply means any treatment involving water, can improve the body’s circulatory system. Warm or hot water relaxes tense muscles and increases oxygen flow through the body.
• Over time, high stress levels can have a severe negative impact on health, including blood circulation. Luckily, much can be done to relieve stress and increase your overall feeling of calm.
• For many of us, moderate alcohol consumption is harmless and can even be healthy.
• Rebounding therapies can have a remarkable impact on blood circulation.
• Dry skin brushing can remove dead skin cells and improve overall circulation.
• Manual lymph drainage therapy unclogs swollen lymph nodes and eliminates waste to improve circulation.
Lead can enter drinking water when service pipes that contain lead corrode, especially where the water has high acidity or low mineral content that corrodes pipes and fixtures. The most common problem is with brass or chrome-plated brass faucets and fixtures with lead solder, from which significant amounts of lead can enter into the water, especially hot water.
Homes built before 1986 are more likely to have lead pipes, fixtures and solder. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) has reduced the maximum allowable lead content — that is, content that is considered “lead-free” — to be a weighted average of 0.25 percent calculated across the wetted surfaces of pipes, pipe fittings, plumbing fittings, and fixtures and 0.2 percent for solder and flux.
Corrosion is a dissolving or wearing away of metal caused by a chemical reaction between water and your plumbing. A number of factors are involved in the extent to which lead enters the water, including:
• the chemistry of the water (acidity and alkalinity) and the types and amounts of minerals in the water,
• the amount of lead it comes into contact with,
• the temperature of the water,
• the amount of wear in the pipes,
• how long the water stays in pipes,
• and The presence of protective scales or coatings inside the plumbing materials.
Health Effects of Exposures to Lead in Drinking Water:
Is there a safe level of lead in drinking water?The Safe Drinking Water Act requires EPA to determine the level of contaminants in drinking water at which no adverse health effects are likely to occur with an adequate margin of safety. These non-enforceable health goals, based solely on possible health risks, are called maximum contaminant level goals (MCLGs). EPA has set the maximum contaminant level goal for lead in drinking water at zero because lead is a toxic metal that can be harmful to human health even at low exposure levels. Lead is persistent, and it can bio-accumulate in the body over time.
Young children, infants, and fetuses are particularly vulnerable to lead because the physical and behavioral effects of lead occur at lower exposure levels in children than in adults. A dose of lead that would have little effect on an adult can have a significant effect on a child. In children, low levels of exposure have been linked to damage to the central and peripheral nervous system, learning disabilities, shorter stature, impaired hearing, and impaired formation and function of blood cells.The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that public health actions be initiated when the level of lead in a child’s blood is 5 micrograms per deciliter (µg/dL) or more.
It is important to recognize all the ways a child can be exposed to lead. Children are exposed to lead in paint, dust, soil, air, and food, as well as drinking water. If the level of lead in a child’s blood is at or above the CDC action level of 5 micrograms per deciliter, it may be due to lead exposures from a combination of sources. EPA estimates that drinking water can make up 20 percent or more of a person’s total exposure to lead. Infants who consume mostly mixed formula can receive 40 percent to 60 percent of their exposure to lead from drinking water.
Even low levels of lead in the blood of children can result in:
• Behavior and learning problems
• Lower IQ and hyperactivity
• Slowed growth
• Hearing problems
• AnemiaIn rare cases, ingestion of lead can cause seizures, coma and even death.
Lead can accumulate in our bodies over time, where it is stored in bones along with calcium. During pregnancy, lead is released from bones as maternal calcium and is used to help form the bones of the fetus. This is particularly true if a woman does not have enough dietary calcium. Lead can also cross the placental barrier exposing the fetus to lead. This can result in serious effects to the mother and her developing fetus, including:
• Reduced growth of the fetus
• Premature birthAdults:Lead is also harmful to adults.
Adults exposed to lead can suffer from:
• Cardiovascular effects, increased blood pressure and incidence of hypertension
You probably know water’s chemical description is H2O. A water molecule consists of one atom of oxygen bound to two atoms of hydrogen. The hydrogen atoms are “attached” to one side of the oxygen atom, resulting in a water molecule having a positive charge on the side where the hydrogen atoms are and a negative charge on the other side, where the oxygen atom is. Since opposite electrical charges attract, water molecules tend to attract each other, making water kind of “sticky.” The side with the hydrogen atoms (positive charge) attracts the oxygen side (negative charge) of a different water molecule.
All these water molecules attracting each other mean they tend to clump together. This is why water drops are, in fact, drops! If is wasn’t for some of Earth’s forces, such as gravity, a drop of water would be ball shaped — a perfect sphere. Even if it doesn’t form a perfect sphere on Earth, we should be happy water is sticky.
Water is called the “universal solvent” because it dissolves more substances than any other liquid. This means that wherever water goes, either through the ground or through our bodies, it takes along valuable chemicals, minerals, and nutrients.
Pure water has a neutral pH. Pure water has a pH, of about 7, which is neither acidic nor basic.
Physical and Chemical Changes:
A physical change is one in which there is no change in the molecules which make up a given substance. Turning water into ice or vapor does not constitute a chemical change because the same molecules make up the liquid, solid and vapor states of water. The only difference between ice, steam and water is this: molecules in ice essentially have no freedom. The only vibrate within the crystal. The molecules in water are free to move within the limits of the container, as limited by gravity. The molecules in stream are completely free to move within the container, if any. They are essentially unaffected by gravity.
A chemical change occurs when new molecules are formed as a result of the change.
When water turns to steam at 212°F, a physical change occurs. On the other hand, when propane gas is ignited, it turns to carbon dioxide and water vapor in a chemical change. And change, of course, continues all the time. Let’s briefly consider the types of change by examine the compounds and mixtures.
Compounds and Mixtures:
How can one distinguish between compounds and mixtures? A compound has a definite and unvarying composition.
Water is a typical compound. It is composed of two elements hydrogen and oxygen in definite proportions. Regardless of where one ands water, it always consists of these two elements and always in the same proportion. Salt is another common compound. Whether it comes from a salt mine or is produced in a laboratory, salt is a compound of the two elements sodium and chlorine in an unvarying ratio.
Water, as a typical compound, also suggests another characteristic of the compound, namely a unique “personality” of its own. Although made up of hydrogen and oxygen, water is quite different from these two elements both physically and chemically. And so we should add to our definitions: a compound has well defined characteristics of its own, usually entirely different from those of its component elements.
Further, water freezes at 32°F and boils at 212°F. This indicates another characteristic of the compound: a pure compound has a definite freezing and a definite boiling point.
And finally, water, as a typical compound, is a uniform substance no matter whether one is considering a drop, a glassful or a lake of it. Thus, a compound is homogeneous.
In sharp contrast, a mixture will vary in the amount of the ingredients it contains. A mixture of sand and salt, for example, may have a bit of salt and a large amount of sand. Or it may be a blend of a large amount of salt and sand. No exact ratios of substances are necessary to constitute a mixture. At the same the ingredients in a mixture continue to maintain their essential properties. The salt still tastes salty; the sand continues to be gritty. The properties of the mixture are simply the total of the separate properties of the salt and sand. In this salt sand mixture the original ingredients could be recovered through some type of mechanical process. And finally, a mixture may have varying proportions of its ingredients in different parts of the sample. There may be more salt than sand at the bottom and less at the top of a mixture. In a word, mixtures are usually heterogeneous.
To a chemist, the term “pure” has meaning only in the context of a particular application or process. The distilled or de-ionized water we use in the laboratory contains dissolved atmospheric gases and occasionally some silica, but their small amounts and relative inertness make these impurities insignificant for most purposes. When water of the highest obtainable purity is required for certain types of exacting measurements, it is commonly filtered, de-ionized, and triple-vacuum distilled. But even this “chemically pure” water is a mixture of isotopic species: there are two stable isotopes of both hydrogen (H1 and H2, the latter often denoted by D) and oxygen (O16 and O18) which give rise to combinations such as H2O18, HDO16, etc., all of which are readily identifiable in the infrared spectra of water vapor. And to top this off, the two hydrogen atoms in water contain protons whose magnetic moments can be parallel or antiparallel, giving rise to ortho- and para-water, respectively. The two forms are normally present in a o/p ratio of 3:1.
The amount of the rare isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in water varies enough from place to place that it is now possible to determine the age and source of a particular water sample with some precision. These differences are reflected in the H and O isotopic profiles of organisms. Thus the isotopic analysis of human hair can be a useful tool for crime investigations and anthropology research.
Current views of water structure
The present thinking, influenced greatly by molecular modeling simulations beginning in the 1980s, is that on a very short time scale (less than a picosecond), water is more like a “gel” consisting of a single, huge hydrogen-bonded cluster. On a 10-12-10-9 sec time scale, rotations and other thermal motions cause individual hydrogen bonds to break and re-form in new configurations, inducing ever-changing local discontinuities whose extent and influence depends on the temperature and pressure.
Activated carbon filters are generally employed in the process of removing organic compounds and/or extracting free chlorine from water, thereby making the water suitable for discharge or use in manufacturing processes.
Eliminating organics in potable water, such as humic and fulvic acid, prevents chlorine in the water from chemically reacting with the acids and forming trihalomethanes, a class of known carcinogens.Activated carbon filters are generally employed in the process of removing organic compounds and/or extracting free chlorine from water, thereby making the water suitable for discharge or use in manufacturing processes. Eliminating organics in potable water, such as humic and fulvic acid, prevents chlorine in the water from chemically reacting with the acids and forming trihalomethanes, a class of known carcinogens.
Activated Carbon (AC) filtration, as with any water treatment method, is not capable of removing every possible type of contaminant. For example, sodium, microbes, fluoride, and nitrates cannot be removed with AC filtration. Water softening also cannot be achieved with AC filters. In addition, heavy metals, such as lead, can only be removed with a very specific kind of activated carbon water treatment, which is typically used only in residential point-of-use filters.
High-Tech Filtration:There are many types of high-tech activated carbon filters available for industrial filtration systems. Activated carbon can exhibit varying performance characteristics depending upon the strata from which it is derived (e.g., bituminous or anthracite coal, bone char, coconut shell) and the way it is manufactured. The methods used to create the various AC materials are highly proprietary and lead to distinct differences across the range of media available to the industry. Water Professionals can specify high-tech filtration methods for the identified contaminates and the level of purity required. This is why it is critical to match up the correct activated carbon bed with the particular need.
This will achieve the most efficient filtering and the longest use interval for the equipment.Coconut shells and coal (anthracite or bituminous) are both organic sources of activated carbon. Carbon forms when an organic source is burned in an environment without oxygen. This process leaves only about 30% of the organic mass intact, driving off heavy organic molecules. Prior to being used for water treatment, the organic mass must then be “activated.” The process of activation opens up the carbon’s massive number of pores and further drives off unwanted molecules. The open pores are what allow the carbon to capture contaminants, known as “adsorption”. The rate of adsorption for a surface area of a just one pound of AC is equal to 60-150 acres!
There are two types of activation methods:Steam activationChemical activationActivated carbon water treatment is basically used for two water treatment purposes and each work in totally different ways.How it works?
1. Chlorine Removal: Activated carbon may be used to remove chlorine with little degradation or damage to the carbon. Dechlorination occurs rapidly and flow rates are typically high. However, this process requires an extensive amount of surface area, and organics in the water will eventually fill up and block the pores of the carbon. Ultimately, the activated carbon filter will need to be replaced as its ability to dechlorinate the water will slowly decline. Spent carbon can be re-activated; however, re-activated filters should only be used in waste-water treatment applications. One advantage to using AC is its low operating cost and virtual “fail safe” operation once installed. One disadvantage is that as the chlorine is removed from the topmost layer of the media, the AC provides a damp environment ideal for the growth and proliferation of bacteria. Bacteria can cause problems in medical applications, or when using carbon as a pretreatment to reverse osmosis.
2. Removal of Organic Matter: As water passes through an activated carbon filter, organic particles and chemicals are trapped inside through a process known “adsorption”.
The adsorption process depends upon 5 key factors:
1) Physical properties of the activated carbon (surface area and pore size distribution);
2) The chemical makeup of the carbon source (amount of hydrogen and oxygen);
3) The chemical makeup and concentration of the contaminant;
4) Water pH and temperature;
5) The length of time the water is exposed to the activated carbon filter (called empty bed contact time or EBCT).
Additional considerations for organics removal are discussed below:
1. Physical Properties: Pore size and distribution have the greatest impact on the effectiveness of AC filtration. The best filtration occurs when carbon pores are barely large enough to allow for the adsorption of contaminants (Figure 1). The type of contaminants an AC filter attracts will depend on the pore size of the filter, which varies based on the type of carbon used and the activation method. AC filters tend to work best for removing organic chemicals with larger molecules.
2. Chemical Properties: The surface of an activated carbon filter may also interact chemically with organic molecules. Electrical forces between the AC surface and the chemical nature of some contaminants may result in ion exchange or adsorption. The activation process determines, to a large extent, the chemical properties of the AC filter, making the filter attractive to various contaminants. Different activation processes will yield activated carbon with different chemical properties. For example, AC that has the least amount of oxygen in pore surfaces will absorb chloroform the best.
3. Contaminant Properties: Activated Carbon is best for use in filtering out large organic molecules. AC and organic molecules are similar materials, which means they will tend to associate with each other. This means organic chemicals will have a stronger tendency to associate with the AC filter rather than remaining dissolved in water. The less soluble organic molecules are, the more likely they are to be adsorbed. Smaller organic molecules fit the smallest pores and are held the tightest.
4. Concentration: The adsorption process can be affected by the concentration of organic contaminants. For example, with chloroform removal one AC filter may be more effective than another at filtering high concentrations of contaminants, and less effective at filtering low concentration of contaminants. Consult with the manufacturer to determine how an activated carbon filter will perform at different concentration levels for a specific chemical.
5. Water Temperature and pH: The rate of adsorption will usually be higher at lower temperatures and pH levels. Chemical reactions and chemical forms are closely related to water temperature and pH. In most cases, organic chemicals are more adsorbable as temperatures and pH levels decrease.
6. Length of Exposure: The length of time in which the contaminant is in contact with the AC filter also influences the adsorption process – the longer the length of contact, the greater the number of contaminants that will be removed. A greater amount of active carbon and a slower flow rate will improve the effectiveness of the filtration process. Bed depth and flow rate are critical design parameters. Carbon filtration is often engineered to provide a specified residence time of water in contact with the carbon bed, referred to as empty bed contact time or EBCT.
Osmosis is a phenomenon where pure water flows from a dilute solution through a semi permeable membrane to a higher concentrated solution. Semi permeable means that the membrane will allow small molecules and ions to pass through it but acts as a barrier to larger molecules or dissolved substances. To illustrate this, assume that a semi permeable membrane is placed between two compartments in a tank. Assume the membrane is permeable to water, but not to salt. If we place a salt solution in one compartment and pure water solution in the other one, the system will try to reach equilibrium by having the same concentration on both sides of the membrane. The only possible way to do this is for water to pass from the pure water compartment to the saltwater compartment.
As water passes through the membrane to the salt solution, the level of liquid in the saltwater compartment will rise until enough pressure, caused by the difference in levels between the two compartments, is generated to stop the osmosis. This pressure, equivalent to a force that the osmosis seems to exert in trying to equalize concentrations on both sides of the membrane, is called osmotic pressure.
If pressure greater than the osmotic pressure is applied to the high concentration the direction of water flow through the membrane can be reversed. This is called reverse osmosis (abbreviated RO). Note that this reversed flow produces pure water from the salt solution, since the membrane is not permeable to salt.If pressure greater than the osmotic pressure is applied to the high concentration the direction of water flow through the membrane can be reversed. This is called reverse osmosis (abbreviated RO). Note that this reversed flow produces pure water from the salt solution, since the membrane is not permeable to salt.
How Does Reverse Osmosis Work?
Diffusion is the movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration. Osmosis is a special case of diffusion in which the molecules are water and the concentration gradient occurs across a semi permeable membrane. The semi permeable membrane allows the passage of water, but not ions (e.g., Na+, Ca2+, Cl-) or larger molecules (e.g., glucose, urea, bacteria). Diffusion and osmosis are thermodynamically favorable and will continue until equilibrium is reached. Osmosis can be slowed, stopped, or even reversed if sufficient pressure is applied to the membrane from the ‘concentrated’ side of the membrane.Reverse osmosis occurs when the water is moved across the membrane against the concentration gradient, from lower concentration to higher concentration. To illustrate, imagine a semi permeable membrane with fresh water on one side and a concentrated aqueous solution on the other side. If normal osmosis takes place, the fresh water will cross the membrane to dilute the concentrated solution. In reverse osmosis, pressure is exerted on the side with the concentrated solution to force the water molecules across the membrane to the fresh water side.
What contaminants will Reverse Osmosis remove from water?Reverse Osmosis is capable of removing up to 99%+ of the dissolved salts (ions), particles, colloids, organics, bacteria and pyrogens from the feed water (although an RO system should not be relied upon to remove 100% of bacteria and viruses). An RO membrane rejects contaminants based on their size and charge. Any contaminant that has a molecular weight greater than 200 is likely rejected by a properly running RO system (for comparison a water molecule has a MW of 18). Likewise, the greater the ionic charge of the contaminant, the more likely it will be unable to pass through the RO membrane. For example, a sodium ion has only one charge (monovalent) and is not rejected by the RO membrane as well as calcium for example, which has two charges. Likewise, this is why an RO system does not remove gases such as CO2 very well because they are not highly ionized (charged) while in solution and have a very low molecular weight. Because an RO system does not remove gases, the permeate water can have a slightly lower than normal pH level depending on CO2 levels in the feed water as the CO2 is converted to carbonic acid.Reverse Osmosis is very effective in treating brackish, surface and ground water for both large and small flows applications. Some examples of industries that use RO water include pharmaceutical, boiler feed water, food and beverage, metal finishing and semiconductor manufacturing to name a few.RO Membrane CleaningRO membranes will inevitably require periodic cleaning, anywhere from 1 to 4 times a year depending on the feed water quality. As a general rule, if the normalized pressure drop or the normalized salt passage has increased by 15%, then it is time to clean the RO membranes. If the normalized permeate flow has decreased by 15% then it is also time to clean the RO membranes. You can either clean the RO membranes in place or have them removed from the RO system and cleaned off site by a service company that specializes in this service. It has been proven that offsite membrane cleaning is more effective at providing a better cleaning than onsite cleaning skids.RO membrane cleaning involves low and high pH cleaners to remove contaminants from the membrane. Scaling is addressed with low pH cleaners and organics, colloidal and biofouling are treated with a high pH cleaner. Cleaning RO membranes is not only about using the appropriate chemicals. There are many other factors involved such as flows, water temperature and quality, properly designed and sized cleaning skids and many other factors that an experienced service group must address in order to properly clean RO membranes.Benefits of reverse osmosis mechanism:
• Reverse Osmosis method gives a water taste better than others.
• After the water getting from the cleaning process of reverse osmosis has no contaminants.
• The reverse osmosis system consumes less amount of energy.
• Ro machine is small one compared to others so it is space saving one too.
• Ro system has a different level of purification.
• Ro system is one of the most economically system of purification.
Have you ever wondered how much of your body is water? The percentage of water varies according to your age and gender. Here’s a look at how much water is inside you.
By weight, the average human adult male is approximately60% water and the average adult female is approximately 50%. There can be considerable variation in body water percentage based on a number of factors like age, health, weight, and sex. In a large study of adults of all ages and both sexes, the adult human body averaged ~65% water. However, this varied substantially by age, sex, and adiposity.
The figure for water fraction by weight in this sample was found to be 58 ±8% water for males and 48 ±6% for females. The body water constitutes as much as 73% of the body weight of a newborn infant, whereas some obese people are as little as 45% water by weight. This is due to how fat tissue does not retain water as well as lean tissue. These statistical averages will vary with factors such as type of population, age of people sampled, number of people sampled, and methodology. So there is not, and cannot be, a figure that is exactly the same for all people, for this or any other physiological measure.
Most of animal body water is contained in various body fluids. These include intracellular fluid; extracellular fluid; plasma; interstitial fluid; and transcellular fluid. Water is also contained inside organs, in gastrointestinal, cerebrospinal, peritoneal, and ocular fluids. Adipose tissue contains about 10% of water, while muscle tissue contains about 75%.
In Netter’s Atlas of Human Physiology, body water is broken down into the following compartments: In Netter’s Atlas of Human Physiology, body water is broken down into the following compartments:
• Intracellular fluid (2/3 of body water) is fluid contained within cells. In a 72-kg body containing 40 liters of fluid, about 25 liters is intracellular, which amounts to 62.5%. Jackson’s texts states 70% of body fluid is intracellular.
• Extracellular fluid (1/3 of body water) is fluid contained in areas outside of cells. For a 40-litre body, about 15 liters is extracellular, which amounts to 37.5%.
• Plasma (1/5 of extracellular fluid). Of this 15 liters of extracellular fluid, plasma volume averages 3 liters, or 20%.
• Interstitial fluid (4/5 of extracellular fluid)
• Transcellular fluid (a.k.a. “third space,” normally ignored in calculations) contained inside organs, such as the gastrointestinal, cerebrospinal, peritoneal, and ocular fluids.
• The amount of water in the human body ranges from 50-75%.
• The average adult human body is 50-65% water.Most of the body’s water is in the intracellular fluid (2/3 of the body’s water). The other third is in the extracellular fluid (1/3 of the water).The amount of water varies, depending on the organ. Much of the water is in blood plasma (20% of the body’s total). According to a study performed by H.H. Mitchell, published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, the amount of water in the human heart and brain is 73%, the lungs are 83%, muscles and kidneys are 79%, the skin is 64%, and the bones are around 31%.
For example, a 70-kg man is made up of about 42L of total water.
28 liters is intracellular water
14L is found in extracellular fluid of which
3L is blood plasma,
1L is the transcellular fluid (cerebrospinal fluid, ocular, pleural, peritoneal and synovial fluids).
10L is the interstitial fluid (including lymph), which is an aqueous medium surrounding cells.
so majority(66%) of the body water is inside the cells.so we are’t in the form of water.
Water is the primary building block of cells.
It acts as an insulator, regulating internal body temperature. This is partly because water has a high specific heat, plus the body uses perspiration and respiration to regulate temperature.
Water is needed to metabolize proteins and carbohydrates used as food. It is the primary component of saliva, used to digest carbohydrates and aid in swallowing food.
The compound lubricates joints.
Water insulates the brain, spinal cord, organs, and fetus. It acts as a shock absorber.
Water is used to flush waste and toxins from the body via urine.
Water is the principal solvent in the body. It dissolves minerals, soluble vitamins, and certain nutrients.
There is no set time that water fasting should last for, but medical advice generally suggests anywhere from 24 hours to 3 days as the maximum time to go without food.
Throughout history, people have undertaken fasts for spiritual or religious reasons. But, water fasting is now popular in the natural health and wellness movements, often alongside meditation.
The Zero Calorie Diet:
The fast is intense and grueling due to the emotional challenges involved. Still, it manages to correct minor disruptions in the body as it helps purify the system. When a person takes only water, he or she is consuming ‘zero’ calories. In a body loaded with numerous toxins, both internal and external, the tissues struggle to eliminate the wastes. Our food habits further add excessive calories, thereby slowing down metabolism. Taking virtually no calories for 2 to 7 days was found to revive our tissues and system functions.
Who do fast?
Water fasts are advised for those who can handle several days of intense calorie deprivation. Individuals who have taken a 2-day fast earlier would find it easier to take a 4-day or 7-day fast. Hence, beginners can start with a 2-day water fast. Patients with medical issues require medical consultation before embarking on this plan.
Obese people trying to lose weight can take the fast and observe immediate results. Although, it is necessary to note that the lost pounds might return once the calories come back into your diet. Underweight people might find the fast too grueling, and can experience more fatigue compared to others. Some might face complications during the fast, and they need to stop it immediately.
What Kind of Water on the Fast?
Since water is the only thing we consumed during the fast, it was important to make sure we had high quality water. We have a whole house filter and a 14-stage under the sink filter, so we were fine with drinking our tap water. Some people prefer to use distilled water while fasting.
Electrolyte depletion is one of the bigger risks of fasting so we added some high quality Himalayan salt to a couple of glasses of our water each day. This is supposed to help with the headaches and tiredness.
The amount of water is also important during a fast. Drinking too much water can cause problems, as can not drinking enough. Sources vary on the exact amount but it ranges between 2-4 quarts a day. I just drank when thirsty and added a pinch of salt to a couple glasses a day.
Benefits of 7 Day Water Fasting:
Having no calories burns approximately 1 pound of fat per day, making it the fastest weight loss method.
Increases insulin sensitivity as there is less fluctuation in blood sugar levels.
Improves body repair, recovery and healing from decreased inflammation.
Lowers stress levels, decreases blood pressure and rejuvenates the body.
Increases immunity due to better cell resistance.
Enables reduction in cancer cell proliferation.
Slows down aging and cognitive decline.
Lowers the risk of heart disease.
Solves digestive problems such as gastritis, irritable bowels, constipation, diarrhea, gas, dyspepsia, and loss of appetite.
Water fasting is also an opportunity for emotional and spiritual introspection. People find they have better control over their thoughts and diet, after they are done with this fast.
Water Fasting Side Effects:
Without calories or other nutrients from food, you’ll likely feel tired and lethargic on the water fast.
You may also feel dizzy and lightheaded and experience headaches, low blood pressure and abnormal heart rhythms, according to the American Cancer Society.
The organization also notes that these effects can make driving or operating heavy machinery more dangerous than usual and that fasting can even increase the risk of an attack in people who suffer from gout.
In addition, the water fast might make gallstone symptoms worse.
If your water fast lasts for days or longer, the risks grow dramatically. You may compromise your immune system and organ function, possibly damaging the kidneys and liver.
If you are continuing your metabolism will also slow as your body tries to conserve energy, so you’ll start burning fewer calories than you did in your solid-food days. Once you start eating normally again, the pounds will pile back on quickly and you may even wind up weighing more than you did when you started your fast.