10 Easy Ways to Drink More Water Every Day

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1. Drink a glass after every bathroom break. Start a habit by linking water with some of your most common daily activities.

Getting up from your desk for a bathroom break? Stop by the kitchen to chug a glass of water after leaving the restroom. Every time you pass the water cooler, fill up a cup.

2. Drinking a full cup before each meal can curb calorie intake because it causes you to feel full.

3. Dilute sugary drinks with water and ice.

If drinking juice, lemonade, or iced tea is a daily habit, water down your sips with H20 and a healthy helping of ice (aim for a one-to-one ratio). You’ll still get the sweetness you’re craving with a healthy dose of the water your body needs.

drinking water

4. Eat water-rich foods. One sneaky way to increase the amount of water you consume on a daily basis:

eat your H2O. Add fruits and vegetables with high water content to your grocery shopping list.

5. Buy a bottle of water and carry it with you.

One of the main reasons that many of us don’t drink enough fluids is because we don’t have water with us. Keeping a bottle to hand to help keep you hydrated. Once your plastic water bottle is empty refill it and keep it in the fridge.

6. Drink water on your nights out.

A really great tip to drink more water is to substitute every other alcoholic drink on a night out with a glass of water. This is much healthier for your body and will save you from feeling horrible the next morning.

7. Drink through a straw and keep sipping throughout the day. Buy a crazy straw to make sure you do this or buy a water bottle with a sip filter.

8. Try different types of water like, spring, mineral, sparking and flavored water.

You can jazz up water with one of these variations. Remember, whatever helps to make water more enjoyable for you is a good thing.

9. Keep a bottle of water with you in the car and take a sip while you are stuck in traffic.

Driving dehydrates us especially in the hot weather and with the air con that dries out the air. On long car journeys make sure you set reminders on your phone as alerts to have a good drink of water every 30 minutes. In warm weather increase this to 15 minutes.

10. Add deadlines to your water drinking.

Aim to drink a certain amount by 10am, midday, 2pm and in the evening to make sure you hit your target, like this from Life hacker. Use a DIY water bottle with deadlines on so you know when and how to reach your targets during the day. In the evening, you can substitute cold water with a warm water drink to reach your goals.


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Top 15 Facts About Human Heart

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1. The average adult heart beats 72 times a minute; 100,000 times a day; 3,600,000 times a year; and 2.5 billion times during a lifetime.

2. The volume of blood pumped by the heart can vary over a wide range, from five to 30 liters per minute.

Heart facts

3. The fetal heart rate is approximately twice as fast as an adult’s, at about 150 beats per minute. By the time a fetus is 12 weeks old, its heart pumps an amazing 60 pints of blood a day.

4. The heart does the most physical work of any muscle during a lifetime. The power output of the heart ranges from 1-5 watts. While the quadriceps can produce 100 watts for a few minutes, an output of one watt for 80 years is equal to 2.5 gigajoule.

5. Five percent of blood supplies the heart, 15-20% goes to the brain and central nervous system, and 22% goes to the kidneys.

6. The heart pumps oxygenated blood through the aorta (the largest artery) at about 1 mile (1.6 km) per hour. By the time blood reaches the capillaries, it is moving at around 43 inches (109 cm) per hour.

7. The term “heartfelt” originated from Aristotle’s philosophy that the heart collected sensory input from the peripheral organs through the blood vessels. It was from those perceptions that thought and emotions arose.

8. A woman’s heart typically beats faster than a man’s. The heart of an average man beats approximately 70 times a minute, whereas the average woman has a heart rate of 78 beats per minute.

heart facts

9. Some heavy snorers may have a condition called obtrusive sleep apnea (OSA), which can negatively affect the heart.

10. Blood is actually a tissue. When the body is at rest, it takes only six seconds for the blood to go from the heart to the lungs and back, only eight seconds for it to go the brain and back, and only 16 seconds for it to reach the toes and travel all the way back to the heart.

11. The right atrium holds about 3.5 tablespoons of blood. The right ventricle holds slightly more than a quarter cup of blood. The left atrium holds the same amount of blood as the right, but its walls are three times thicker.

12. A newborn baby has about one cup of blood in circulation. An adult human has about four to five quarts which the heart pumps to all the tissues and to and from the lungs in about one minute while beating 75 times.

13. During an average lifetime, the heart will pump nearly 1.5 million barrels of     blood—enough to fill 200 train tank cars.

14. Laughing is good for your heart. It reduces stress and gives a boost to your immune system

15. The youngest person to receive heart surgery was only a minute old. She had a heart defect that many babies don’t survive. Her surgery was successful, but she’ll eventually need heart transplant.


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10 Cooking Tips That Will Change Your Life Updated [2018]

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1. Hard-boiled eggs are rich in protein, and they make a great grab-and-go snack. Just pack a spoon with you—it will help you take the shell off quickly and neatly, especially if the eggs are very fresh.

2. The flesh of kiwis can be super soft, making it hard to separate the peel from this delicious fruit that’s packed with fiber, vitamin C, and folate. Using just a spoon, though, you can peel a kiwi quickly and neatly.

Cooking tips

3. Ginger adds a fresh and spicy kick to almost any dish, but it has nooks and crannies that make it difficult to peel and mince. Here’s a quick and easy way to prepare fresh ginger using a spoon or a fork.

4. A fresh baguette features a delicious, crunchy crust and fluffy middle, but when it goes stale, it turns into a rubbery hunk of bread. Bring life back to dried-out, stale bread with this oh-so-easy technique.

5. Cheese is a tasty addition to any party platter, but the softer varieties can be hard to cut. Learn how to cut soft cheese into perfect slices so your guests can enjoy a snack without making a mess.

6. You may have a steel or a sharpener at home, but once a year, get a pro to revive those knives. Your chopping will get faster, more precise—and, believe it or not, safer.

7. Chicken breasts are expensive and can get dull after a while; thighs are juicier, cheaper, and more flavorful.

8. Do your scrambled eggs slide off the pan if you don’t use oil or butter? They should. Might be time for an upgrade.

cooking tips

9. Put the lid on the pot to make your water boil faster. Seems obvious, but if you don’t know, now you know.

10. Avoid evil glass cutting boards. And they’re all evil. Glass cutting boards send shivers down your spine when you use them. They dull your knives. They’re slippery. And they’re hard to use. Use wood, bamboo or plastic instead.


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Top 10 Tips to Help Children Develop Healthy Habits

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1. Get the whole family moving – Plan times for everyone to get moving together. Take walks, ride bikes, go swimming, garden or just play hide-and-seek outside. Everyone will benefit from the exercise and the time together.1. Get the whole family moving – Plan times for everyone to get moving together. Take walks, ride bikes, go swimming, garden or just play hide-and-seek outside. Everyone will benefit from the exercise and the time together.

healthy habits

2. Keep things positive – Kid’s don’t like to hear what they can’t do, tell them what they can do instead. Keep it fun and positive. Everyone likes to be praised for a job well done. Celebrate successes and help children and teens develop a good self-image.

3. Limit TV, video game and computer time – These habits lead to a sedentary lifestyle and excessive snacking, which increase risks for obesity and cardiovascular disease. Limit screen time to 2 hours per day.

4. Put sweets in their place- Occasional sweets are fine, but don’t turn dessert into the main reason for eating dinner. When dessert is the prize for eating dinner, kids naturally place more value on the cupcake than the broccoli. Try to stay neutral about foods.

5. Kids do as you do. Be a role model and eat healthy yourself. When trying to teach good eating habits, try to set the best example possible. Choose nutritious snacks, eat at the table, and don’t skip meals.

6. Have the fun in the kitchen- Children are more likely to become adventurous eaters if they know how to cook. Make it fun by giving them their own aprons and letting them help you regularly with small tasks in the kitchen. As they get older and more confident, let them cook dinner once a week.

7. Don’t give up- Our research shows that most babies and young children need to try something new seven to ten times before they like it. So don’t be afraid to introduce children to new or more exotic tastes. A good tactic to get kids to eat a wide variety of foods is to tell them that tasting new things is a sign they’re growing up. Or, take them shopping and let them choose a new, healthy food to serve at home with something they already like.

healthy habits

8. Exercise is essential as well-Establish exercise habits in your kids as early as possible, say by the age of 5-6. Heavy weight training exercise is not advisable but daily 10-15 minutes of exercises like stretching or brisk walking should be instilled. Exercises like cycling, jumping ropes or swimming should be encouraged in kids.

9. Stay involved – Be an advocate for healthier children. Insist on good food choices at school. Make sure your children’s healthcare providers are monitoring cardiovascular indicators like BMI, blood pressure and cholesterol. Contact public officials on matters of the heart. Make your voice heard.

10. Start them young- Food preferences are developed early in life, so offer variety. Likes and dislikes begin forming even when kids are babies. You may need to serve a new food a few different times for a child to accept it. Don’t force a child to eat, but offer a few bites. With older kids, ask them to try one bite.


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Water chemistry

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You probably know water’s chemical description is H2O. A water molecule consists of one atom of oxygen bound to two atoms of hydrogen. The hydrogen atoms are “attached” to one side of the oxygen atom, resulting in a water molecule having a positive charge on the side where the hydrogen atoms are and a negative charge on the other side, where the oxygen atom is. Since opposite electrical charges attract, water molecules tend to attract each other, making water kind of “sticky.” The side with the hydrogen atoms (positive charge) attracts the oxygen side (negative charge) of a different water molecule.

All these water molecules attracting each other mean they tend to clump together. This is why water drops are, in fact, drops! If is wasn’t for some of Earth’s forces, such as gravity, a drop of water would be ball shaped — a perfect sphere. Even if it doesn’t form a perfect sphere on Earth, we should be happy water is sticky.

water chemistry

Water is called the “universal solvent” because it dissolves more substances than any other liquid. This means that wherever water goes, either through the ground or through our bodies, it takes along valuable chemicals, minerals, and nutrients.
Pure water has a neutral pH. Pure water has a pH, of about 7, which is neither acidic nor basic.

Physical and Chemical Changes:

Physical change:

A physical change is one in which there is no change in the molecules which make up a given substance. Turning water into ice or vapor does not constitute a chemical change because the same molecules make up the liquid, solid and vapor states of water. The only difference between ice, steam and water is this: molecules in ice essentially have no freedom. The only vibrate within the crystal. The molecules in water are free to move within the limits of the container, as limited by gravity. The molecules in stream are completely free to move within the container, if any. They are essentially unaffected by gravity.

Chemical change:

A chemical change occurs when new molecules are formed as a result of the change.
When water turns to steam at 212°F, a physical change occurs. On the other hand, when propane gas is ignited, it turns to carbon dioxide and water vapor in a chemical change. And change, of course, continues all the time. Let’s briefly consider the types of change by examine the compounds and mixtures.

Compounds and Mixtures:

How can one distinguish between compounds and mixtures? A compound has a definite and unvarying composition.

Water is a typical compound. It is composed of two elements hydrogen and oxygen in definite proportions. Regardless of where one ands water, it always consists of these two elements and always in the same proportion. Salt is another common compound. Whether it comes from a salt mine or is produced in a laboratory, salt is a compound of the two elements sodium and chlorine in an unvarying ratio.

Water, as a typical compound, also suggests another characteristic of the compound, namely a unique “personality” of its own. Although made up of hydrogen and oxygen, water is quite different from these two elements both physically and chemically. And so we should add to our definitions: a compound has well defined characteristics of its own, usually entirely different from those of its component elements.

Further, water freezes at 32°F and boils at 212°F. This indicates another characteristic of the compound: a pure compound has a definite freezing and a definite boiling point.
And finally, water, as a typical compound, is a uniform substance no matter whether one is considering a drop, a glassful or a lake of it. Thus, a compound is homogeneous.

In sharp contrast, a mixture will vary in the amount of the ingredients it contains. A mixture of sand and salt, for example, may have a bit of salt and a large amount of sand. Or it may be a blend of a large amount of salt and sand. No exact ratios of substances are necessary to constitute a mixture. At the same the ingredients in a mixture continue to maintain their essential properties. The salt still tastes salty; the sand continues to be gritty. The properties of the mixture are simply the total of the separate properties of the salt and sand. In this salt sand mixture the original ingredients could be recovered through some type of mechanical process. And finally, a mixture may have varying proportions of its ingredients in different parts of the sample. There may be more salt than sand at the bottom and less at the top of a mixture. In a word, mixtures are usually heterogeneous.

water chemistry

“Pure” water

To a chemist, the term “pure” has meaning only in the context of a particular application or process. The distilled or de-ionized water we use in the laboratory contains dissolved atmospheric gases and occasionally some silica, but their small amounts and relative inertness make these impurities insignificant for most purposes. When water of the highest obtainable purity is required for certain types of exacting measurements, it is commonly filtered, de-ionized, and triple-vacuum distilled. But even this “chemically pure” water is a mixture of isotopic species: there are two stable isotopes of both hydrogen (H1 and H2, the latter often denoted by D) and oxygen (O16 and O18) which give rise to combinations such as H2O18, HDO16, etc., all of which are readily identifiable in the infrared spectra of water vapor. And to top this off, the two hydrogen atoms in water contain protons whose magnetic moments can be parallel or antiparallel, giving rise to ortho- and para-water, respectively. The two forms are normally present in a o/p ratio of 3:1.

The amount of the rare isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in water varies enough from place to place that it is now possible to determine the age and source of a particular water sample with some precision. These differences are reflected in the H and O isotopic profiles of organisms. Thus the isotopic analysis of human hair can be a useful tool for crime investigations and anthropology research.

Current views of water structure

The present thinking, influenced greatly by molecular modeling simulations beginning in the 1980s, is that on a very short time scale (less than a picosecond), water is more like a “gel” consisting of a single, huge hydrogen-bonded cluster. On a 10-12-10-9 sec time scale, rotations and other thermal motions cause individual hydrogen bonds to break and re-form in new configurations, inducing ever-changing local discontinuities whose extent and influence depends on the temperature and pressure.


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Water resources Management

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Water management means dealing with water in the best possible way. This can be done by local authorities or it can be done by individuals at home.

Good water management will involve organizing water so that everyone has enough, and controlling water supplies and water treatment centers so that they work in the best possible way. It thus often involves some knowledge of the chemical properties of water.

The importance of water management

water resource management

Water management affects many aspects of our lives. Water is so common that we often do not think about where it comes from or where it is managed. But, bad water management can really hit us hard. Below are some key ways in which water management is important.

1. Drinking water: humans need to drink around 8 glasses of water a day in order to get sufficient hydration. So clean drinking water is necessity for us. Without water, we can only survive for a few days at most. But, if we have water and no food, we can survive for several weeks. This shows just how crucial it is that we have daily access to clean water that is suitable for drinking. If we have pets, they will need daily access to water too.

2. Washing and cleaning: we also use water to keep ourselves, our clothes and our homes clean and hygienic. A clean water supply is important for this too. From washing our hands before a meal to deep cleaning a hospital floor, we need clean water for almost all aspects of good hygiene.
3. Agriculture: water is used throughout the world to grow crops such as grains and fruits. A good water supply is needed to prevent hunger and famine.

4. Leisure and fun: swimming, boating and many other leisure activities involve water. Swimming pools and other facilities need to be well maintained so that they remain safe and enjoyable places to be. Swimming pool water needs to be managed by treating it with chlorine and regularly testing its levels of bacteria and other substances, for instance, to ensure that it is safe for people to swim in.

5. Biodiversity: managing water well ensures that we do not deplete or contaminate rivers, lakes and other important water sources which are habitats for a wide range of birds, mammals, fish, reptiles and amphibians as well as water dwelling plants.
Methods of water management

There are several water management methods available in the world, and these are being honed all the time as scientists and engineers find new ways to look after our water supplies. Below are 5 key water management strategies that are widely used today.

Water resource management

1. Waste water systems – recycling and treating: sewage systems help to dispose of waste water in a clean and safe way. They also very often involve recycling water and treating it so that it is safe to be piped back into people’s homes and used for drinking, washing and so on. These systems are absolutely essential for ensuring that our waste water does not cause us to fall ill.

2. Irrigation systems: good quality irrigation systems can be deployed to nourish crops in drought hit areas. These systems can be managed so that water is not wasted – and they can use recycled water or rain water to avoid unnecessarily depleting water supplies.

3. Conserving water: both big companies and private individuals can conserve many gallons of water every day, simply by not running taps or using water-guzzling appliances unnecessarily. Water can also be conserved by generally consuming less. Not many people realize how much water goes in to the production of a car or an item of clothing, for example. Cutting down on the amount of things that we buy can really reduce the amount of water that is needed to support our lifestyle.

4. Caring for the natural water supplies: natural water sources such as lakes, rivers and seas are so important. Both fresh water ecosystems and marine ecosystems are home to a wide variety of different organisms and without the support of these ecosystems, these organisms would most likely become extinct. Good water management thus also involves ensuring that we do not pollute natural water sources.

5. Effective implementation of plans – ensuring that everyone has enough water: there is no denying that easy access to fresh, clean, safe water is a right that all humans should enjoy. However, in many parts of the world, people have to walk many miles in order to access clean water. So, good water management systems are only truly praiseworthy if they are implemented throughout the world so that everyone can benefit from them. Good water management means not just a convenient and safe water supply for some people – but water for everyone to use.


Good water management should be an absolute priority for every generation, and for every government throughout the world. More should be done to ensure that absolutely everyone in the world has daily access to safe, clean water that they can use for drinking, washing and growing crops.

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How to Maintain Your RO Water Purifier

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In the pollution- ridden and highly toxic atmosphere we live in today, it is necessary to ensure that we at least consume purified and good quality water. Since the human body majorly consists of water, it is essential that the water we drink is fresh and free of contaminants that may harm the body. One of the best ways to get purified water is by purchasing water purifier for the home. In the pollution- ridden and highly toxic atmosphere we live in today, it is necessary to ensure that we at least consume purified and good quality water. Since the human body majorly consists of water, it is essential that the water we drink is fresh and free of contaminants that may harm the body. One of the best ways to get purified water is by purchasing water purifier for the home.
RO water purifiers are known to be one of the best purifiers in the world. It is a simple and uncomplicated water purification process that filters impurities and contaminants from tap water to give clean and fresh water, ready for consumption. One may use the clean and healthy water for drinking.

While there are a number of water purifiers available in the market, it makes sense to purchase the RO water purifier. This is because it has numerous advantages over other usual purifiers on offer. RO based system maintains an equilibrium in water, and filters out only the harmful and disease causing contaminants. The minerals and good bacteria, which is required by the body, are retained by the filtration process.

1. Changing RO filters on a regular basis:

A water purifier generally has three to five filtration stages. The filters need to be changed periodically as they become filled with impurities and stop working.

• The pre-filtering stage consists of a filter cartridge that leaves out sand and other sediments. The pre-filtering stage prevents the reverse osmosis membrane from getting damaged. You must change the pre-filter cartridge every six to nine months.

• The second phase of the filtration process is a carbon filter that removes chlorine and bad odor. Chlorine also potentially damages the RO membrane and must also get changed periodically, after every six to nine months.

• The third phase is the reverse osmosis stage where the residual sediments are excluded from the membrane and drained. You can replace this membrane after two to three years. Either do it yourself or call RO experts from Urban Clap to fix this.  The condition of the RO membrane also depends on the quality of your local water supply.

2. Cleaning and sanitization:

The water purifier must be cleaned well by professionals as the system can get ruined during disconnection of the RO tank. Basically, your water purifier needs to go through a sanitization and a recharge once every year. Specific sanitization kits are also available and they can be purchased through various online stores if you feel like doing it manually. A user manual also comes with the water purifier system. In case you have lost it or have not been provided with one, here are the instructions for you: Begin by shutting off the mains supply of the water tank and then turning off the water supply from the shut-off valve. After that, the receiving water line connected to the RO tank is released by a wrench. You can use the sanitization kits for cleaning the insides of the tank. After cleaning, you need to reassemble the storage tank and finally, turn the water supply back on. You should avoid drinking the water right after reassembling the system.

Water purifier service chennai

3. Installing a softener for extra efficient functioning:

Softeners work great with a water purifier systems because the RO membranes are delicate in front of water-hardening minerals such as calcium and magnesium. Together with an RO membrane, softener safeguards and extends the durability. You might also observe the corrosion caused by hard water in your own home. Adding softeners can be difficult as you need to know where to install it. Generally, professionals are required to do this process – some heavy amount of plumbing is needed as the softeners have to be placed at the point where the water gets into your house.

4. Keeping the exteriors of the water purifier clean

In order to make your system last longer, for around 12 to 15 years, you need to clean it. Using some soapy water from the outside of the water purifier quite regularly also does the job. Also, make sure you keep cleaning the tap that is attached to the water purifier often.At Urban Clap, you can find professionals who would come to your home and provide the necessary help to elongate the durability of your water purifier. Some of the procedures can be done by yourself but you also run the risk of ruining it while reassembling the system. You do not have to worry about having the perfect-sized wrenches while disengaging the tank from the water supply. We also provide organic sanitizing materials that clean the insides of your tank.If cleaning yourself, you’ll want to consult your owner’s manual for specific details on how to sanitize your system, but here’s the process in general terms:

• Shut off the main valve completely

• Next dispense all of the water from your RO faucet Remove the sediment  and carbon filters from their housing

• Remove the RO membrane from housing• Keep the filters out of their housings, but screw the housings back in place

• Pour about 1 cup of hydrogen peroxide into stage one housing

• Reattach all connections

• Turn the main valve back on

• Allow the system to run (without the filters, the storage tank will refill rapidly)

• Let the system run at least through 2 cycles

• Shut off the main valve again

• Install the new filters

• Let the tank fill back up and then drain one more time


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Activated Carbon Filters

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Activated carbon filters are generally employed in the process of removing organic compounds and/or extracting free chlorine from water, thereby making the water suitable for discharge or use in manufacturing processes.

Eliminating organics in potable water, such as humic and fulvic acid, prevents chlorine in the water from chemically reacting with the acids and forming trihalomethanes, a class of known carcinogens.Activated carbon filters are generally employed in the process of removing organic compounds and/or extracting free chlorine from water, thereby making the water suitable for discharge or use in manufacturing processes. Eliminating organics in potable water, such as humic and fulvic acid, prevents chlorine in the water from chemically reacting with the acids and forming trihalomethanes, a class of known carcinogens.

Activated Carbon (AC) filtration, as with any water treatment method, is not capable of removing every possible type of contaminant. For example, sodium, microbes, fluoride, and nitrates cannot be removed with AC filtration. Water softening also cannot be achieved with AC filters. In addition, heavy metals, such as lead, can only be removed with a very specific kind of activated carbon water treatment, which is typically used only in residential point-of-use filters.

activated carbon

High-Tech Filtration:There are many types of high-tech activated carbon filters available for industrial filtration systems. Activated carbon can exhibit varying performance characteristics depending upon the strata from which it is derived (e.g., bituminous or anthracite coal, bone char, coconut shell) and the way it is manufactured. The methods used to create the various AC materials are highly proprietary and lead to distinct differences across the range of media available to the industry. Water Professionals can specify high-tech filtration methods for the identified contaminates and the level of purity required. This is why it is critical to match up the correct activated carbon bed with the particular need.

This will achieve the most efficient filtering and the longest use interval for the equipment.Coconut shells and coal (anthracite or bituminous) are both organic sources of activated carbon. Carbon forms when an organic source is burned in an environment without oxygen. This process leaves only about 30% of the organic mass intact, driving off heavy organic molecules. Prior to being used for water treatment, the organic mass must then be “activated.” The process of activation opens up the carbon’s massive number of pores and further drives off unwanted molecules. The open pores are what allow the carbon to capture contaminants, known as “adsorption”. The rate of adsorption for a surface area of a just one pound of AC is equal to 60-150 acres!

There are two types of activation methods:Steam activationChemical activationActivated carbon water treatment is basically used for two water treatment purposes and each work in totally different ways.How it works?

1. Chlorine Removal: Activated carbon may be used to remove chlorine with little degradation or damage to the carbon. Dechlorination occurs rapidly and flow rates are typically high. However, this process requires an extensive amount of surface area, and organics in the water will eventually fill up and block the pores of the carbon. Ultimately, the activated carbon filter will need to be replaced as its ability to dechlorinate the water will slowly decline. Spent carbon can be re-activated; however, re-activated filters should only be used in waste-water treatment applications. One advantage to using AC is its low operating cost and virtual “fail safe” operation once installed. One disadvantage is that as the chlorine is removed from the topmost layer of the media, the AC provides a damp environment ideal for the growth and proliferation of bacteria. Bacteria can cause problems in medical applications, or when using carbon as a pretreatment to reverse osmosis.

2. Removal of Organic Matter: As water passes through an activated carbon filter, organic particles and chemicals are trapped inside through a process known “adsorption”.

The adsorption process depends upon 5 key factors:

1) Physical properties of the activated carbon (surface area and pore size distribution);

2) The chemical makeup of the carbon source (amount of hydrogen and oxygen);

3) The chemical makeup and concentration of the contaminant;

4) Water pH and temperature;

5) The length of time the water is exposed to the activated carbon filter (called empty bed contact time or EBCT).

activated carbon

Additional considerations for organics removal are discussed below:

1. Physical Properties: Pore size and distribution have the greatest impact on the effectiveness of AC filtration. The best filtration occurs when carbon pores are barely large enough to allow for the adsorption of contaminants (Figure 1). The type of contaminants an AC filter attracts will depend on the pore size of the filter, which varies based on the type of carbon used and the activation method. AC filters tend to work best for removing organic chemicals with larger molecules.

2. Chemical Properties: The surface of an activated carbon filter may also interact chemically with organic molecules. Electrical forces between the AC surface and the chemical nature of some contaminants may result in ion exchange or adsorption. The activation process determines, to a large extent, the chemical properties of the AC filter, making the filter attractive to various contaminants. Different activation processes will yield activated carbon with different chemical properties. For example, AC that has the least amount of oxygen in pore surfaces will absorb chloroform the best.

3. Contaminant Properties: Activated Carbon is best for use in filtering out large organic molecules. AC and organic molecules are similar materials, which means they will tend to associate with each other. This means organic chemicals will have a stronger tendency to associate with the AC filter rather than remaining dissolved in water. The less soluble organic molecules are, the more likely they are to be adsorbed. Smaller organic molecules fit the smallest pores and are held the tightest.

4. Concentration: The adsorption process can be affected by the concentration of organic contaminants. For example, with chloroform removal one AC filter may be more effective than another at filtering high concentrations of contaminants, and less effective at filtering low concentration of contaminants. Consult with the manufacturer to determine how an activated carbon filter will perform at different concentration levels for a specific chemical.

5. Water Temperature and pH: The rate of adsorption will usually be higher at lower temperatures and pH levels. Chemical reactions and chemical forms are closely related to water temperature and pH. In most cases, organic chemicals are more adsorbable as temperatures and pH levels decrease.

6. Length of Exposure: The length of time in which the contaminant is in contact with the AC filter also influences the adsorption process – the longer the length of contact, the greater the number of contaminants that will be removed. A greater amount of active carbon and a slower flow rate will improve the effectiveness of the filtration process. Bed depth and flow rate are critical design parameters. Carbon filtration is often engineered to provide a specified residence time of water in contact with the carbon bed, referred to as empty bed contact time or EBCT.

Conclusion :

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Types Of Water Resources

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Water resources are under major stress around the world. Rivers, lakes, and underground aquifers supply fresh water for irrigation, drinking, and sanitation, while the oceans provide habitat for a large share of the planet’s food supply. Today, however, expansion of agriculture, damming, diversion, over-use, and pollution threaten these irreplaceable resources in many parts of the globe. Providing safe drinking water for the more than 1 billion people who currently lack it is one of the greatest public health challenges facing national governments today. In many developing countries, safe water, free of pathogens and other contaminants, is unavailable to much of the population, and water contamination remains a concern even for developed countries with good water supplies and advanced treatment systems. And over-development, especially in coastal regions and areas with strained water supplies, is leading many regions to seek water from more and more distant sources.

Distribution of Freshwater Resources:

Freshwater accounts for only some 6 percent of the world’s water supply, but is essential for human uses such as drinking, agriculture, manufacturing, and sanitation.

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As discussed above, two-thirds of global freshwater is found underground. If you dig deeply enough anywhere on Earth, you will hit water. Some people picture groundwater as an underground river or lake, but in reality it is rarely a distinct water body (large caves in limestone aquifers are one exception). Rather, groundwater typically fills very small spaces (pores) within rocks and between sediment grains. The water table is the top of the saturated zone (Fig. 3). It may lie hundreds of meters deep in deserts or near the surface in moist ecosystems. Water tables typically shift from season to season as precipitation and transpiration levels change, moving up during rainy periods or periods of little transpiration and sinking during dry phases when the rate of recharge (precipitation minus evaporation and transpiration that infiltrates from the surface) drops. In temperate regions the water table tends to follow surface topography, rising under hills where there is little discharge to streams and falling under valleys where the water table intersects the surface in the form of streams, lakes, and springs.

Of all of this water, only about 2.5 percent is freshwater: the other 97.5 percent is saltwater. Almost 69 percent of freshwater resources are tied up in glaciers and ice caps, about 30 percent is groundwater, and a mere 0.27 percent is surface water. While all kinds of water resources are important for the survival of the planet, accessible freshwater is especially important for humans.

Saltwater resources:

As mentioned, saltwater is abundant in the surface of the planet. However, saltwater is currently not particularly useful when it comes to potable water supplies. Desalination plants, while they do exist, are scarce because the energy required for desalination makes the process extremely expensive.

That said, there are saltwater resources from which humans benefit, aside from beautiful ocean views. Saltwater fish are a staple in much of the world’s diet (although overfishing and pollution has put much of the marine life population at risk). Furthermore, tidal waters are being used as a source of hydroelectric energy. So, while saltwater is not helpful in dealing with scarce water supplies, it does provide resources that humans rely on.

Groundwater resources:

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Groundwater is the most plentiful of all freshwater resources. As water percolates into the ground through layers of soil, clay, and rock, some of it adheres to the topmost layers to provide water to plants. This water is in what is called the unsaturated, or zone. Most of the pores in the vadose zone are filled with air, rather than water. Gravity continues to move the water down through the ground. Eventually, the water reaches the saturated zone, where all the pores are filled with water. The separation between the saturated and unsaturated zone is called the water table. Aquifers are areas of permeable rock that hold water. Typically, aquifers are made of bedrock that has many fractures and connected pores, such as limestone, sandstone and gravel. Shale and clay layers are impermeable, and therefore make poor aquifers. An aquifer is “recharged” through precipitation from above percolating through the layers of soil and rock. Therefore, there is significant interaction between surface water and ground water. In turn, groundwater feeds surface water through springs, and surface water can also recharge groundwater supply. Most often, groundwater is accessed by humans via wells. To build a well, one must drill down past the water table. In most cases, a pump is placed in the bottom of the well, and it is pumped into homes, businesses and water treatment plants, where it is then dispersed.

As water is pumped from the ground, a cone of depression forms around the well. The groundwater from the surrounding area moves towards the well. Wells can run dry during times of drought, or if surrounding wells are pumping too much water, causing the cone of depression to be large. Water pumped from wells is generally very clean. The layers of soil, clay and rock acts as a natural filter. However, contaminants from nearby contaminated soils, leaky underground tanks, and septic systems can pollute a well, rendering it unusable.

Furthermore, salt water intrusion can occur when the rate of pumping near a shoreline exceeds the rate of recharge. Saltwater gets pulled from the ocean into the cone of depression, and enters the well. Subsidence, the gradual settling of the land due to continuous pumping and development, has also become an issue as groundwater is mined. This occurs when groundwater is pumped out faster than it can be replenished, and the sediment beneath becomes compacted. Subsidence is a permanent phenomenon. It can cause structural problems to foundations, an increased incidence of sinkholes and flooding problems. To top it off, subsidence is extremely costly. In some areas, such as the San Joaquin Valley in California, the land has subsided over 30 feet due to groundwater withdraw.

Surface water resources:

Surface water is the water that exists in streams and lakes. This water is primarily used for potable water supply, recreation, irrigation, industry, livestock, transportation and hydroelectric energy. Over 63 percent of the public water supply is withdrawn from surface water. Irrigation gets 58 percent of its water supply from surface water. Industry gets almost 98 percent of its water from surface water systems. Therefore, surface water conservation and quality is of the utmost importance. Watershed organizations continuously measure the stream flow and quality of surface water. Stream flow is monitored to warn of flooding and drought conditions. Water quality is very important, as the majority of the water used in the United States comes from surface water. It is the measure of how suitable the water is from a biological, chemical and physical perspective. Water quality can be impacted negatively by both natural and human causes: electrical conductivity, pH, temperature, phosphorus levels, dissolved oxygen levels, nitrogen levels and bacteria are tested as a measure of water quality. Water that runs off into the stream can naturally carry sediment, debris and pathogens. Turbidity, the measure of suspended sediment in a stream, is also a measure of water quality. The more turbid the water, the lower the water quality. Manmade contaminants such as gasoline, solvents, pesticides, and nitrogen from livestock can wash over the land and can leach in to waterways, degrading the quality of nearby waters. The Clean Water Act in the United States protects the quality of the stream and issues fines to those contributing to the degradation in water quality. By protecting and conserving the water supply, there is a greater guarantee of future water resources for human use.

Conclusion :

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Harmful Impurities Found In Drinking Water

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Water is our life line. One cannot imagine what would happen to mankind without water. If there is no water there would be no life on earth. The only living being that does not understand the importance of water is human, especially the industrialized countries.

An average person can spend weeks without eating food but he or she cannot spend 2-3 days without drinking water. It not only quenches your thirst but also plays a vital role in metabolism of the body by helping in digestion and excretion.

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Pure water is colorless, odorless and tasteless, it is chemically made of two components that is hydrogen and oxygen. Because water is a universal solvent, it dissolves almost everything which comes in contact with it. Pure and safe water is hard to get nowadays as there is a rapid increase in water pollution.

Since water is equated with life, attention must be paid to the impurities that can be present in the water. Without the access of safe and pure drinking water mankind will head towards many serious health issues and life threatening diseases.

Common Impurities Found In Drinking Water

The most common impurities found in water are listed below. Some of the impurities are caused by humans as the result of their day to day activities, some are from factories and industries and some are caused by cattle, livestock, and other organisms.


Biological contamination of water is caused by the presence of living organisms like algae, bacteria, protozoa, pathogens, microbes, Viruses, Parasites and their eggs (cysts), etc. known collectively known as microorganisms and commonly called ‘germs’. The health effects of drinking water contaminated with germs may be severe, but easily curable with modern day medicine. These minute living organisms in water are the causes of diseases from dirty water like typhoid fever, dysentery, cholera, gastroenteritis, etc.

Microorganisms are the most deadly impurities present in water that makes water extremely unfit for drinking and other purposes. Living organisms like bacteria, protozoa and other viruses are very harmful for living beings as they can lead to many fatal diseases and disorders. These microorganisms cannot be removed easily from water. They can survive even if we boil water at high temperature.

Suspended particles:

A portion of the suspended particles like sand and mud have a tendency to contaminate the water and make water to be turbid. The vast majority of these particles settle down over the time but some may stay suspended and must be evacuated after they have been filtered.

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These are the solids which are insoluble like dust, fine sand, clay, rust, etc. They remain suspended in the water and cause muddy water or cloudiness in water. ‘Total Suspended Solids’ or ‘TSS’ is the technical term used to measure how much of dirt there is in the muddy water. ‘Turbidity’ is the term to describe the muddy water and a unit of measurement of cloudy water is based on the transmission of light through the muddy or cloudy water.

Chemical content:

The problem with chemicals in water is that they dissolve in water and cannot be removed by simple filtration. ‘Total Dissolved Solids’ or ‘TDS’ is the technical term used to give a measure of the amount of dissolved matter in the water and is usually expressed as ‘ppm’ which stands for ‘parts per million’ or as ‘milligrams per liter (mg/L). To remove dissolved chemicals in water, it has to be either distilled or purified by using an RO water purifier. Some of the most dangerous chemicals found in drinking water in India are listed with an explanation as to how it affects our health in our page for toxic poisonous chemicals in water.


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