5 Tips to improve your memory[September 2018]

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In our regular work we get lot of tension. We can’t do the physical exercise regularly. So we get some memory loss many time.

tips to increase memory power

Now we can see the tips to improve memory.

Do physical exercise

  • When you do physical exercise it will improve your memory power
  • When you are active your brain will be more active

Play some memory games

  • Eventually play some memory games
  • It will improve some memory power

Eat Omega-3 food

  • Eat more fruit and vegetables
  • Drink green tea

 

  • foods for memory

Always laugh

  • Don’t depress yourself
  • Reduce stress

Read book

  • Reading book regularly
  • It will improve your memory

Conclusion:

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10 Best Foods To Eat When You’re Sick

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When you’re sick, eating the right foods is more important than ever. Certain foods have powerful properties that can support your body while it’s fighting an illness. They may relieve certain symptoms and even help you heal more quickly.

1. Chicken soup:

Chicken soup has been recommended as a remedy for the common cold for hundreds of years — and for good reason. It’s an easy-to-eat source of vitamins, minerals, calories and protein, which are nutrients your body needs in larger quantities while you’re sick. Chicken soup is also an excellent source of fluids and electrolytes, both of which are necessary for hydration if you’re making frequent trips to the bathroom. Your body will also need even more fluids if you have a fever.

sick

2. Hot Tea:

Drinking tea while you’re under the weather can help the body fight off infections, thanks to natural bacteria-fighting compounds in tea. Antibacterial activity of black tea extract against Salmonella serotypes causing enteric fever. Plus, warm liquids can soothe a sore throat and alleviate congestion, so drinks like freshly-brewed green tea or hot water with lemon are ideal for staying hydrated while helping out that stuffy nose. Effects of drinking hot water, cold water, and chicken soup on nasal mucus velocity and nasal airflow resistance.

3. Citrus Fruits:

While vitamin C, found in large amounts in citrus, can’t necessarily cure the common cold, several studies suggest that it can help reduce the length or severity of colds.  What’s more, fruits like oranges, lemons, grapefruits, and limes contain flavonoids, which can help boost the immune system and are great for speeding recovery.

4. Spicy Foods:

Spicy foods can make our noses run and our eyes water, but they’re also effective natural decongestants. Eating chili peppers, wasabi, or horseradish can help relieve the symptoms of congestion.

5. Ginger:

Research has shown that ginger is incredibly effective at preventing and soothing nausea and other gastric ailments (such as constipation, bloating, and vomiting).  Drinking ginger tea or flat ginger ale (to avoid disrupting the stomach with carbonation) can help keep you hydrated while also soothing tummy troubles.

6. Dairy:

The jury’s still out on this one, but many people believe that consuming dairy can promote mucus production, which could worsen congestion when sick. However, current research indicates that this may actually be due to a placebo effect.  But regardless of whether or not milk changes how much mucus we actually produce, drinking it can create the feeling of thicker mucus, so if that bothers you, it can’t hurt to avoid milk while sick.

7. Coconut Water:Staying well-hydrated is one of the most important things you can do when sick. Hydration is especially important when you have a fever, sweat a lot or have vomiting or diarrhea, which can cause you to lose a lot of water and electrolytes. Coconut water is the perfect beverage to sip on when you’re sick. Besides being sweet and flavorful, it contains glucose and the electrolytes needed for re-hydration.

8. Honey:

Honey has potent antibacterial effects, likely because of its high content of antimicrobial compounds. In fact, it has such strong antibacterial effects that it was used in wound dressings by the ancient Egyptians, and is still used for this purpose today. Some evidence suggests that honey can also stimulate the immune system. These qualities alone make honey an excellent food to eat when sick, especially if you have a sore throat caused by a bacterial infection.

Sick food

9. Spicy foods:Spicy foods like chili peppers contain capsaicin, which causes a hot, burning sensation when touched. When high enough in concentration, capsaicin can have a desensitizing effect and is often used in pain-relieving gels and patches. Many people report that eating spicy foods causes a runny nose, breaking up mucus and clearing out the sinus passages. While few studies have tested this effect, capsaicin does seem to thin out mucus, making it easier to expel. Nasal capsaicin sprays have been used with good results to relieve congestion and itching.

10.Oatmeal

Like bananas, oatmeal is bland and easy to eat while providing the calories, vitamins and minerals you need when sick. It also contains some protein — about 5 grams in a 1/2 cup. Oatmeal has some other powerful health benefits, including stimulating the immune system and improving blood sugar control. One rat study also showed that beta-glucan, a type of fiber found in oats, helped decrease inflammation in the gut. This could help relieve symptoms such as intestinal cramping, bloating and diarrhea. However, avoid buying artificially flavored oatmeal with lots of added sugar.  Instead, add a small amount of honey or fruit to provide even more benefits.

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Top 10 Tips To Overcome Idleness

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1.Get organized

The most important aspect of overcoming laziness is getting organized. So many times we want to do something productive but the clutter and the junk makes it seem impossible to get anything done and entices us to not even start our task.

lazy

A nice, clean and organized work space just invites us to do some work and be productive. A cluttered and trashed work space invites us to stay on the couch. Set aside a few hours to devote to organizing work stations – everything from your desk to your computer files to your favorites links on your web browser. Make everything as easy, seamless and efficient to find as possible.

2.Break down a task into smaller tasks

We often avoid tasks because we find them too big, too overwhelming, too tiring, or taking too much of our time.

Breaking a task into several smaller tasks can solve this problem. Then, each one will not seem so difficult or intimidating. Instead of having one big task, we will have a series of small tasks, which do not require too much effort.
This approach can be applied not only to tasks, but also to goals and everything else we have or need to do. This will tend to melt much of the laziness and inner resistance we often experience.

3.Rest, sleep and exercise

In some cases, laziness is due to being tired and lacking energy. If this is true in your case, you need to give yourself the rest and sleep you need, and also give your body enough exercise and fresh air.

4.Think about benefits

Think about the benefits you will gain if you overcome your laziness and take action, instead of thinking about the difficulties or obstacles. Focusing on the difficulties of carrying out the task, leads to discouragement, avoidance of taking action and to laziness. It is important that you focus your mind and attention on the benefits, not on the difficulties.

5.Doing one thing at a time

Focus on doing one thing at a time. If you feel you have a lot to do, you will probably feel overwhelmed and let laziness overcome you, instead of you overcoming laziness.

6.Doing one thing at a time

Focus on doing one thing at a time. If you feel you have a lot to do, you will probably feel overwhelmed and let laziness overcome you, instead of you overcoming laziness.

7.Visualization

Your imagination has a great influence on your mind, habits and action. Visualize yourself performing the task easily, energetically and enthusiastically. Do so before starting with a task or goal, and also when you feel lazy, or when your mind whispers to you to abandon what you are doing.

8.Have a vision of what and who you want to be

Frequently reflecting on the person we want to be, the goals we want to achieve, and the life we want to live, can motivate us to act.

9.Thinking about the consequences

Think about what will happen, if you succumb to laziness, and don’t perform your task or chore. Thinking about the consequences of not acting, can also push you to take action.

lazy

10.Learn from successful people

Watch successful people, and how they do not let laziness win. Learn from them, talk with them and associate with them.

Conclusion:

Overcoming the habit of laziness is achieved through a series of daily actions and activities, when you choose to act, instead of remaining passive. Every time you overcome your laziness you get stronger. Every time you choose to act, you increase your ability to win, achieve goals and improve your life.

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How to protect yourself from Extreme Heat this summer

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1. Don’t wear blackIt is basic science that darker colors absorb more heat, something that all of us learned back in 9th grade. However, most of us fail to apply this practically in real life. When we move out wearing dark colored clothes in the sun, they absorb more heat which is in turn transferred to our bodies, making us feel hotter. To help feel a little cooler during these brutal summers, avoid wearing black.

2. Wear summer friendly fabricsFabrics like rayon, nylon, wool or satin etc tend to be heavy and make you feel hotter. Stock up on breezy clothes like skirts and kurtis instead of denims and knit fabrics. Even while dressing up, try to avoid satin and silk and instead choose smart dresses or skirts in cotton or some other light fabric.

heat protection

3. Exercise in moderationWhile taking care of your health is important, exercising too much in this weather will most probably only affect your health adversely. If you lose too much sweat during the summers, you run the risk of being dehydrated. And exercising in the sun can also lead to a heat stroke. If you have to walk, do so in the early morning before the sun comes out- which happens as early as 7 sometimes and starts heating everything up. Or do it at night or late evening.

4. Take a cool showerDuring summers, you can easily bathe twice or thrice a day. A good shower can be very refreshing after a hot day as it helps bring down the body temperature. Showers and cold water baths also clean you of the sweat and grime that is sure to stick to your body in this heat. So take as many showers as you want to when you feel hot.  5. Drink plenty of fluidsRemaining hydrated is very, very important during summers. Always carry a water bottle if you are going out. Getting dehydrated is a real risk, so do not hesitate in buying water if you feel tired or thirsty. Drink light drinks like lemonade or fresh fruit juices to cut the heat and replace the water lost through sweat. Avoid alcohol and caffeinated drinks as they increase the loss of fluids from the body. Lack of water tends to make one feel tired and lethargic, so mixing glucose in water is also a good idea after coming in from the heat.

6. Light diet and avoid heavy food:Always opt for a light diet. Avoid heavy oily and spicy foods as much as you can because these foods take a longer time to digest. Do not drink alcoholic beverages and avoid tea or coffee because they speed up fluid loss.

7. Avoid those thingsDo not bundle a baby in blankets or heavy clothing.  Infants don’t tolerate heat well because their sweat glands are not well developed.   Some people perspire more than others do.  Those who do should drink as much fluid as they can during hot, humid days.

8. Use your common senseFinally, use your common sense in protecting yourself from the sun. If you feel like staying in would be better than heading out in the sun, postpone your meetings or schedule them for the mornings. Always wear sunglasses and scarves and a good sunscreen before going out and cover your body in light fabrics like cotton and linen instead of denim jeans and full sleeved satin shirts. If you feel too hot, turn on the air conditioner or go back home instead of risking a heat stroke.

heat protection

9. Tips for HydrationDrink water depending on how thirsty you are. Always keep a check of water loss, the color of urine can be a good indication for this. Make sure you consume enough amount of water before getting out in summer. It is also advisable to include fruits and vegetables in diet during summer season, as all of them include water content in some way or the other.

10 . Sun ScreenUnlike you are staying indoors on summer days, it is always a wise thing to carry a sunscreen with you. This is perhaps one of the best tool that you could make use of in fighting against sun issues during summer. Sunscreen will work effectively only if we follow some steps.At least 30 minutes before heading outdoors, make sure you put on the sun block. Apply sunscreen every 20-30 minutes as over a period of time sunscreen will wear off. Make sure you apply them throughout your body especially ears, head and hands. Even waterproof sunscreens may not be effectively water proof, so it is advisable to apply them in high quantity. Be sure to check the expiry date of sunscreens, as once they cross that date there will be tremendous dip in its effectiveness. When it comes to babies, it is better to use them in small quantity.

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16 Ways You Can Protect the Environment

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The earth is a giant ecosystem that deserves our protection. Without our environment, we would be unable to thrive as humans. It’s up to each of us to do our part to help protect the environment. Any time you can reduce the amount of water you use, save on using gasoline, reduce the use of electricity, prevent items from going into landfills or save on natural resources, you help protect the environment in important ways.

1. There are loads of ways to do conserve water. When you brush your teeth, only turn the water on when you need to rinse.  Boiling potatoes? Don’t throw the water down the drain!  Use it to water your plants. Use rain barrels to catch water from the gutters and downspout. These are just a few ways that can make a big difference. Conserving water is one of the most important things you can do to protect our environment.

Protect the environment

2. Compost food leftovers instead of throwing them away or sending them down the garbage disposal, which needs water and electricity to run. You can then use the compost for your garden.

3. Walk or ride a bicycle to work or to run errands instead of driving a car or motorcycle, which both use gasoline and emit carbon monoxide into the air.

4. If walking or riding a bike is out of the question, mass transit and/or carpooling causes less strain on the environment and puts a smaller dent on your bank account.

5. Food wastes takes up so much of our landfills, and it can easily be put to wonderful use if you have a garden. The soil under the top layer is just fabulous compost.

6. Planting your own vegetables is fun to do, and is very satisfying when the garden produces and gives you peace of mind that you are eating things that you have grown.

7. Plastic bags aren’t biodegradable, meaning nature can’t break them down, and they often end up ravaging animal habitats or polluting waterways. Instead, use a cloth or canvas bag when doing your grocery shopping.

8. E-waste is a growing concern, especially when industrialized countries send old electronics to poorer nations, harming both the impoverished individuals who salvage them and the environment that must sustain the waste. Try not to upgrade to the latest version of any gadget you have if the device you own continues to work well. If you need to, though, deposit your old version at an e-waste collection center.

9. Having your own garden is a great way to eat organically, avoid genetically modified foods, and reduce the need for polluting farming equipment and substandard irritation methods.

10. Have a grey water system installed on your property. A grew water system reuses the water from sinks and washing machines and diverts it to the garden where you can use the water for irrigation or washing garden equipment, cars, grills, etc.

Protect the environment

11. If you don’t have the resources to volunteer your time, you can donate money or environmental and conservation groups like the World Wildlife Fund or World Nature Organization.

12. An hour before bedtime, switch from electric lighting to candlelight. That’s a savings of seven hours of electricity use each week, plus the candlelight will be more conducive to a good night’s sleep.

13. Allow hair to air dry instead of using a blow dryer every time you wash your hair. Not only is it better for your tresses; you’ll save on electricity use.

14. Encourage your family to eat meals together. If all family members are eating on individual schedules, that’s more microwaving, more baking, more refrigerator door openings than if everyone eats at a set time and multiple meals are made at one time.

15. Throw on a sweater and wooly socks instead of turning up the heat in winter.

16. Make recycling easy in your home. Place dedicated recycling receptacles everyplace where waste is; in the bathroom, home office, bedrooms and kitchen. Remember that paper tissue is recyclable, as is most office paper waste, including shredded paper.

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10 Easy Ways to Drink More Water Every Day

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1. Drink a glass after every bathroom break. Start a habit by linking water with some of your most common daily activities.

Getting up from your desk for a bathroom break? Stop by the kitchen to chug a glass of water after leaving the restroom. Every time you pass the water cooler, fill up a cup.

2. Drinking a full cup before each meal can curb calorie intake because it causes you to feel full.

3. Dilute sugary drinks with water and ice.

If drinking juice, lemonade, or iced tea is a daily habit, water down your sips with H20 and a healthy helping of ice (aim for a one-to-one ratio). You’ll still get the sweetness you’re craving with a healthy dose of the water your body needs.

drinking water

4. Eat water-rich foods. One sneaky way to increase the amount of water you consume on a daily basis:

eat your H2O. Add fruits and vegetables with high water content to your grocery shopping list.

5. Buy a bottle of water and carry it with you.

One of the main reasons that many of us don’t drink enough fluids is because we don’t have water with us. Keeping a bottle to hand to help keep you hydrated. Once your plastic water bottle is empty refill it and keep it in the fridge.

6. Drink water on your nights out.

A really great tip to drink more water is to substitute every other alcoholic drink on a night out with a glass of water. This is much healthier for your body and will save you from feeling horrible the next morning.

7. Drink through a straw and keep sipping throughout the day. Buy a crazy straw to make sure you do this or buy a water bottle with a sip filter.

8. Try different types of water like, spring, mineral, sparking and flavored water.

You can jazz up water with one of these variations. Remember, whatever helps to make water more enjoyable for you is a good thing.

9. Keep a bottle of water with you in the car and take a sip while you are stuck in traffic.

Driving dehydrates us especially in the hot weather and with the air con that dries out the air. On long car journeys make sure you set reminders on your phone as alerts to have a good drink of water every 30 minutes. In warm weather increase this to 15 minutes.

10. Add deadlines to your water drinking.

Aim to drink a certain amount by 10am, midday, 2pm and in the evening to make sure you hit your target, like this from Life hacker. Use a DIY water bottle with deadlines on so you know when and how to reach your targets during the day. In the evening, you can substitute cold water with a warm water drink to reach your goals.

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Top 15 Facts About Human Heart

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1. The average adult heart beats 72 times a minute; 100,000 times a day; 3,600,000 times a year; and 2.5 billion times during a lifetime.

2. The volume of blood pumped by the heart can vary over a wide range, from five to 30 liters per minute.

Heart facts

3. The fetal heart rate is approximately twice as fast as an adult’s, at about 150 beats per minute. By the time a fetus is 12 weeks old, its heart pumps an amazing 60 pints of blood a day.

4. The heart does the most physical work of any muscle during a lifetime. The power output of the heart ranges from 1-5 watts. While the quadriceps can produce 100 watts for a few minutes, an output of one watt for 80 years is equal to 2.5 gigajoule.

5. Five percent of blood supplies the heart, 15-20% goes to the brain and central nervous system, and 22% goes to the kidneys.

6. The heart pumps oxygenated blood through the aorta (the largest artery) at about 1 mile (1.6 km) per hour. By the time blood reaches the capillaries, it is moving at around 43 inches (109 cm) per hour.

7. The term “heartfelt” originated from Aristotle’s philosophy that the heart collected sensory input from the peripheral organs through the blood vessels. It was from those perceptions that thought and emotions arose.

8. A woman’s heart typically beats faster than a man’s. The heart of an average man beats approximately 70 times a minute, whereas the average woman has a heart rate of 78 beats per minute.

heart facts

9. Some heavy snorers may have a condition called obtrusive sleep apnea (OSA), which can negatively affect the heart.

10. Blood is actually a tissue. When the body is at rest, it takes only six seconds for the blood to go from the heart to the lungs and back, only eight seconds for it to go the brain and back, and only 16 seconds for it to reach the toes and travel all the way back to the heart.

11. The right atrium holds about 3.5 tablespoons of blood. The right ventricle holds slightly more than a quarter cup of blood. The left atrium holds the same amount of blood as the right, but its walls are three times thicker.

12. A newborn baby has about one cup of blood in circulation. An adult human has about four to five quarts which the heart pumps to all the tissues and to and from the lungs in about one minute while beating 75 times.

13. During an average lifetime, the heart will pump nearly 1.5 million barrels of     blood—enough to fill 200 train tank cars.

14. Laughing is good for your heart. It reduces stress and gives a boost to your immune system

15. The youngest person to receive heart surgery was only a minute old. She had a heart defect that many babies don’t survive. Her surgery was successful, but she’ll eventually need heart transplant.

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10 Cooking Tips That Will Change Your Life Updated [2018]

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1. Hard-boiled eggs are rich in protein, and they make a great grab-and-go snack. Just pack a spoon with you—it will help you take the shell off quickly and neatly, especially if the eggs are very fresh.

2. The flesh of kiwis can be super soft, making it hard to separate the peel from this delicious fruit that’s packed with fiber, vitamin C, and folate. Using just a spoon, though, you can peel a kiwi quickly and neatly.

Cooking tips

3. Ginger adds a fresh and spicy kick to almost any dish, but it has nooks and crannies that make it difficult to peel and mince. Here’s a quick and easy way to prepare fresh ginger using a spoon or a fork.

4. A fresh baguette features a delicious, crunchy crust and fluffy middle, but when it goes stale, it turns into a rubbery hunk of bread. Bring life back to dried-out, stale bread with this oh-so-easy technique.

5. Cheese is a tasty addition to any party platter, but the softer varieties can be hard to cut. Learn how to cut soft cheese into perfect slices so your guests can enjoy a snack without making a mess.

6. You may have a steel or a sharpener at home, but once a year, get a pro to revive those knives. Your chopping will get faster, more precise—and, believe it or not, safer.

7. Chicken breasts are expensive and can get dull after a while; thighs are juicier, cheaper, and more flavorful.

8. Do your scrambled eggs slide off the pan if you don’t use oil or butter? They should. Might be time for an upgrade.

cooking tips

9. Put the lid on the pot to make your water boil faster. Seems obvious, but if you don’t know, now you know.

10. Avoid evil glass cutting boards. And they’re all evil. Glass cutting boards send shivers down your spine when you use them. They dull your knives. They’re slippery. And they’re hard to use. Use wood, bamboo or plastic instead.

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Top 10 Tips to Help Children Develop Healthy Habits

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1. Get the whole family moving – Plan times for everyone to get moving together. Take walks, ride bikes, go swimming, garden or just play hide-and-seek outside. Everyone will benefit from the exercise and the time together.1. Get the whole family moving – Plan times for everyone to get moving together. Take walks, ride bikes, go swimming, garden or just play hide-and-seek outside. Everyone will benefit from the exercise and the time together.

healthy habits

2. Keep things positive – Kid’s don’t like to hear what they can’t do, tell them what they can do instead. Keep it fun and positive. Everyone likes to be praised for a job well done. Celebrate successes and help children and teens develop a good self-image.

3. Limit TV, video game and computer time – These habits lead to a sedentary lifestyle and excessive snacking, which increase risks for obesity and cardiovascular disease. Limit screen time to 2 hours per day.

4. Put sweets in their place- Occasional sweets are fine, but don’t turn dessert into the main reason for eating dinner. When dessert is the prize for eating dinner, kids naturally place more value on the cupcake than the broccoli. Try to stay neutral about foods.

5. Kids do as you do. Be a role model and eat healthy yourself. When trying to teach good eating habits, try to set the best example possible. Choose nutritious snacks, eat at the table, and don’t skip meals.

6. Have the fun in the kitchen- Children are more likely to become adventurous eaters if they know how to cook. Make it fun by giving them their own aprons and letting them help you regularly with small tasks in the kitchen. As they get older and more confident, let them cook dinner once a week.

7. Don’t give up- Our research shows that most babies and young children need to try something new seven to ten times before they like it. So don’t be afraid to introduce children to new or more exotic tastes. A good tactic to get kids to eat a wide variety of foods is to tell them that tasting new things is a sign they’re growing up. Or, take them shopping and let them choose a new, healthy food to serve at home with something they already like.

healthy habits

8. Exercise is essential as well-Establish exercise habits in your kids as early as possible, say by the age of 5-6. Heavy weight training exercise is not advisable but daily 10-15 minutes of exercises like stretching or brisk walking should be instilled. Exercises like cycling, jumping ropes or swimming should be encouraged in kids.

9. Stay involved – Be an advocate for healthier children. Insist on good food choices at school. Make sure your children’s healthcare providers are monitoring cardiovascular indicators like BMI, blood pressure and cholesterol. Contact public officials on matters of the heart. Make your voice heard.

10. Start them young- Food preferences are developed early in life, so offer variety. Likes and dislikes begin forming even when kids are babies. You may need to serve a new food a few different times for a child to accept it. Don’t force a child to eat, but offer a few bites. With older kids, ask them to try one bite.

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Water chemistry

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You probably know water’s chemical description is H2O. A water molecule consists of one atom of oxygen bound to two atoms of hydrogen. The hydrogen atoms are “attached” to one side of the oxygen atom, resulting in a water molecule having a positive charge on the side where the hydrogen atoms are and a negative charge on the other side, where the oxygen atom is. Since opposite electrical charges attract, water molecules tend to attract each other, making water kind of “sticky.” The side with the hydrogen atoms (positive charge) attracts the oxygen side (negative charge) of a different water molecule.

All these water molecules attracting each other mean they tend to clump together. This is why water drops are, in fact, drops! If is wasn’t for some of Earth’s forces, such as gravity, a drop of water would be ball shaped — a perfect sphere. Even if it doesn’t form a perfect sphere on Earth, we should be happy water is sticky.

water chemistry

Water is called the “universal solvent” because it dissolves more substances than any other liquid. This means that wherever water goes, either through the ground or through our bodies, it takes along valuable chemicals, minerals, and nutrients.
Pure water has a neutral pH. Pure water has a pH, of about 7, which is neither acidic nor basic.

Physical and Chemical Changes:

Physical change:

A physical change is one in which there is no change in the molecules which make up a given substance. Turning water into ice or vapor does not constitute a chemical change because the same molecules make up the liquid, solid and vapor states of water. The only difference between ice, steam and water is this: molecules in ice essentially have no freedom. The only vibrate within the crystal. The molecules in water are free to move within the limits of the container, as limited by gravity. The molecules in stream are completely free to move within the container, if any. They are essentially unaffected by gravity.

Chemical change:

A chemical change occurs when new molecules are formed as a result of the change.
When water turns to steam at 212°F, a physical change occurs. On the other hand, when propane gas is ignited, it turns to carbon dioxide and water vapor in a chemical change. And change, of course, continues all the time. Let’s briefly consider the types of change by examine the compounds and mixtures.

Compounds and Mixtures:

How can one distinguish between compounds and mixtures? A compound has a definite and unvarying composition.

Water is a typical compound. It is composed of two elements hydrogen and oxygen in definite proportions. Regardless of where one ands water, it always consists of these two elements and always in the same proportion. Salt is another common compound. Whether it comes from a salt mine or is produced in a laboratory, salt is a compound of the two elements sodium and chlorine in an unvarying ratio.

Water, as a typical compound, also suggests another characteristic of the compound, namely a unique “personality” of its own. Although made up of hydrogen and oxygen, water is quite different from these two elements both physically and chemically. And so we should add to our definitions: a compound has well defined characteristics of its own, usually entirely different from those of its component elements.

Further, water freezes at 32°F and boils at 212°F. This indicates another characteristic of the compound: a pure compound has a definite freezing and a definite boiling point.
And finally, water, as a typical compound, is a uniform substance no matter whether one is considering a drop, a glassful or a lake of it. Thus, a compound is homogeneous.

In sharp contrast, a mixture will vary in the amount of the ingredients it contains. A mixture of sand and salt, for example, may have a bit of salt and a large amount of sand. Or it may be a blend of a large amount of salt and sand. No exact ratios of substances are necessary to constitute a mixture. At the same the ingredients in a mixture continue to maintain their essential properties. The salt still tastes salty; the sand continues to be gritty. The properties of the mixture are simply the total of the separate properties of the salt and sand. In this salt sand mixture the original ingredients could be recovered through some type of mechanical process. And finally, a mixture may have varying proportions of its ingredients in different parts of the sample. There may be more salt than sand at the bottom and less at the top of a mixture. In a word, mixtures are usually heterogeneous.

water chemistry

“Pure” water

To a chemist, the term “pure” has meaning only in the context of a particular application or process. The distilled or de-ionized water we use in the laboratory contains dissolved atmospheric gases and occasionally some silica, but their small amounts and relative inertness make these impurities insignificant for most purposes. When water of the highest obtainable purity is required for certain types of exacting measurements, it is commonly filtered, de-ionized, and triple-vacuum distilled. But even this “chemically pure” water is a mixture of isotopic species: there are two stable isotopes of both hydrogen (H1 and H2, the latter often denoted by D) and oxygen (O16 and O18) which give rise to combinations such as H2O18, HDO16, etc., all of which are readily identifiable in the infrared spectra of water vapor. And to top this off, the two hydrogen atoms in water contain protons whose magnetic moments can be parallel or antiparallel, giving rise to ortho- and para-water, respectively. The two forms are normally present in a o/p ratio of 3:1.

The amount of the rare isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in water varies enough from place to place that it is now possible to determine the age and source of a particular water sample with some precision. These differences are reflected in the H and O isotopic profiles of organisms. Thus the isotopic analysis of human hair can be a useful tool for crime investigations and anthropology research.

Current views of water structure

The present thinking, influenced greatly by molecular modeling simulations beginning in the 1980s, is that on a very short time scale (less than a picosecond), water is more like a “gel” consisting of a single, huge hydrogen-bonded cluster. On a 10-12-10-9 sec time scale, rotations and other thermal motions cause individual hydrogen bonds to break and re-form in new configurations, inducing ever-changing local discontinuities whose extent and influence depends on the temperature and pressure.

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