Harmful Impurities Found In Drinking Water

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Water is our life line. One cannot imagine what would happen to mankind without water. If there is no water there would be no life on earth. The only living being that does not understand the importance of water is human, especially the industrialized countries.

An average person can spend weeks without eating food but he or she cannot spend 2-3 days without drinking water. It not only quenches your thirst but also plays a vital role in metabolism of the body by helping in digestion and excretion.

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Pure water is colorless, odorless and tasteless, it is chemically made of two components that is hydrogen and oxygen. Because water is a universal solvent, it dissolves almost everything which comes in contact with it. Pure and safe water is hard to get nowadays as there is a rapid increase in water pollution.

Since water is equated with life, attention must be paid to the impurities that can be present in the water. Without the access of safe and pure drinking water mankind will head towards many serious health issues and life threatening diseases.

Common Impurities Found In Drinking Water

The most common impurities found in water are listed below. Some of the impurities are caused by humans as the result of their day to day activities, some are from factories and industries and some are caused by cattle, livestock, and other organisms.

Micro-organisms:

Biological contamination of water is caused by the presence of living organisms like algae, bacteria, protozoa, pathogens, microbes, Viruses, Parasites and their eggs (cysts), etc. known collectively known as microorganisms and commonly called ‘germs’. The health effects of drinking water contaminated with germs may be severe, but easily curable with modern day medicine. These minute living organisms in water are the causes of diseases from dirty water like typhoid fever, dysentery, cholera, gastroenteritis, etc.

Microorganisms are the most deadly impurities present in water that makes water extremely unfit for drinking and other purposes. Living organisms like bacteria, protozoa and other viruses are very harmful for living beings as they can lead to many fatal diseases and disorders. These microorganisms cannot be removed easily from water. They can survive even if we boil water at high temperature.

Suspended particles:

A portion of the suspended particles like sand and mud have a tendency to contaminate the water and make water to be turbid. The vast majority of these particles settle down over the time but some may stay suspended and must be evacuated after they have been filtered.

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These are the solids which are insoluble like dust, fine sand, clay, rust, etc. They remain suspended in the water and cause muddy water or cloudiness in water. ‘Total Suspended Solids’ or ‘TSS’ is the technical term used to measure how much of dirt there is in the muddy water. ‘Turbidity’ is the term to describe the muddy water and a unit of measurement of cloudy water is based on the transmission of light through the muddy or cloudy water.

Chemical content:

The problem with chemicals in water is that they dissolve in water and cannot be removed by simple filtration. ‘Total Dissolved Solids’ or ‘TDS’ is the technical term used to give a measure of the amount of dissolved matter in the water and is usually expressed as ‘ppm’ which stands for ‘parts per million’ or as ‘milligrams per liter (mg/L). To remove dissolved chemicals in water, it has to be either distilled or purified by using an RO water purifier. Some of the most dangerous chemicals found in drinking water in India are listed with an explanation as to how it affects our health in our page for toxic poisonous chemicals in water.

Conclustion:

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15 Solutions Of Water Pollution

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Water pollution is the contamination of water in water bodies such as rivers, oceans, lakes and swamps. This means that one or more substances have built up in water to the extent of causing problems to people, animals and plants.Water pollution is the contamination of water in water bodies such as rivers, oceans, lakes and swamps. This means that one or more substances have built up in water to the extent of causing problems to people, animals and plants.

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1. Do not dump in and around rivers. Dumping is the one of the major cause of water pollution.

2. Septic tank will eventually leak and human waste becomes exposed to ground water. So, clean and maintain septic systems properly.

3. Follow all water laws and regulations, these regulations and laws are in place for a reason breaking the rules put the water at risk.

4. If you are putting “normal” fertilizer, pesticides, and other chemicals on your lawn or in your gardens, you are contributing to the pollution problem. So try to avoid those types of pesticides use only natural fertilizer.

5. Many of the chemicals found in our food, household cleaners, personal care products, and medications are all being dumped back into the waterways. These chemicals are NOT adequately filtered through municipal water treatment facilities. So surely we must avoid those types of chemicals.

6. Less plastic and no litter because this type of plastic is easy for wildlife to swallow and eventually causes death. Plastic factories also deliver much of the pollution that is not bio-degradable. Up to 40 percent of all bottled waters are merely re-processed tap water.

7. Where storm water lands in ditches or culverts, a check dam or ditch check can be used to filter the runoff, preventing sediment pollution and trash from exiting the property.

8. As a way of reducing the pollution load to zero, there is a need for the more advanced engineered cleaning process. Some developed worlds have sewage treatment plants with extra systems for eliminating pathogens and nutrients. Other regions should emulate this strategy to reduce sewage pollutant loads to zero.

9. Agricultural production practices qualify as massive causal agents for water pollution. Green agricultural practice techniques like crop rotation, mulching, planting perennial crops, contour plowing, and installing silt fences can minimize the effects of silt deposition. It will give some good effect of preventing the water pollution.

10. The installation of pre-treatment facilities and adoption of quality waste treatment protocols in the industries can extensively help to eliminate the toxic contaminants from the discharge.

11. Environmental protection policies such as the Clean Water Acts work to ensure that anti-pollution laws are effected and apply to all significant waters including ground water.

12. Avoiding throwing of oils, paints, chemicals and medicines in sink drain or toilet can as well contribute to reducing the dangers of water pollution. Waste consumer products and utilities such as drugs, battery cells, and other chemical wastes can be disposed at designated disposal points where the relevant authorities can collect and dispose them effectively.

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13. Use water wisely. Do not keep the tap running when not in use. Also you can reduce the amount of water you use in washing and bathing. If we all do this, we can significantly prevent water shortages and reduce the amount of dirty water that needs treatment.

14. In many developed cities, waste or sewage treatment is very efficient, and designed to minimize pollution of water bodies.

15. Buy more environmentally safe cleaning liquids for use at home and other public places. They are less dangerous to the environment.

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What is the importance of water in our body?

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Have you ever wondered how much of your body is water? The percentage of water varies according to your age and gender. Here’s a look at how much water is inside you.

By weight, the average human adult male is approximately60% water and the average adult female is approximately 50%. There can be considerable variation in body water percentage based on a number of factors like age, health, weight, and sex. In a large study of adults of all ages and both sexes, the adult human body averaged ~65% water. However, this varied substantially by age, sex, and adiposity.

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The figure for water fraction by weight in this sample was found to be 58 ±8% water for males and 48 ±6% for females. The body water constitutes as much as 73% of the body weight of a newborn infant, whereas some obese people are as little as 45% water by weight. This is due to how fat tissue does not retain water as well as lean tissue. These statistical averages will vary with factors such as type of population, age of people sampled, number of people sampled, and methodology. So there is not, and cannot be, a figure that is exactly the same for all people, for this or any other physiological measure.

Most of animal body water is contained in various body fluids. These include intracellular fluid; extracellular fluid; plasma; interstitial fluid; and transcellular fluid. Water is also contained inside organs, in gastrointestinal, cerebrospinal, peritoneal, and ocular fluids. Adipose tissue contains about 10% of water, while muscle tissue contains about 75%.

In Netter’s Atlas of Human Physiology, body water is broken down into the following compartments: In Netter’s Atlas of Human Physiology, body water is broken down into the following compartments:

• Intracellular fluid (2/3 of body water) is fluid contained within cells. In a 72-kg body containing 40 liters of fluid, about 25 liters is intracellular, which amounts to 62.5%. Jackson’s texts states 70% of body fluid is intracellular.

• Extracellular fluid (1/3 of body water) is fluid contained in areas outside of cells. For a 40-litre body, about 15 liters is extracellular, which amounts to 37.5%.

• Plasma (1/5 of extracellular fluid). Of this 15 liters of extracellular fluid, plasma volume averages 3 liters, or 20%.

• Interstitial fluid (4/5 of extracellular fluid)

• Transcellular fluid (a.k.a. “third space,” normally ignored in calculations) contained inside organs, such as the gastrointestinal, cerebrospinal, peritoneal, and ocular fluids.

• The amount of water in the human body ranges from 50-75%.

• The average adult human body is 50-65% water.Most of the body’s water is in the intracellular fluid (2/3 of the body’s water). The other third is in the extracellular fluid (1/3 of the water).The amount of water varies, depending on the organ. Much of the water is in blood plasma (20% of the body’s total). According to a study performed by H.H. Mitchell, published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, the amount of water in the human heart and brain is 73%, the lungs are 83%, muscles and kidneys are 79%, the skin is 64%, and the bones are around 31%.

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For example, a 70-kg man is made up of about 42L of total water.

  • 28 liters is intracellular water
  • 14L is found in extracellular fluid of which
  • 3L is blood plasma,
  • 1L is the transcellular fluid (cerebrospinal fluid, ocular, pleural, peritoneal and synovial fluids).
  • 10L is the interstitial fluid (including lymph), which is an aqueous medium surrounding cells.

so majority(66%) of the  body water is inside the cells.so we are’t in the form of water.

  • Water is the primary building block of cells.
  • It acts as an insulator, regulating internal body temperature. This is partly because water has a high specific heat, plus the body uses perspiration and respiration to regulate temperature.
  • Water is needed to metabolize proteins and carbohydrates used as food. It is the primary component of saliva, used to digest carbohydrates and aid in swallowing food.
  • The compound lubricates joints.
  • Water insulates the brain, spinal cord, organs, and fetus. It acts as a shock absorber.
  • Water is used to flush waste and toxins from the body via urine.
  • Water is the principal solvent in the body. It dissolves minerals, soluble vitamins, and certain nutrients.
  • Water carries oxygen and nutrients to cells.

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10 WATER BORNE DISEASES

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Cholera:

Cholera is a waterborne disease and is diarrhoeal in nature. A person can get affected by Cholera by drinking water or eating food contaminated with the cholera bacterium. It can happen to both children and adults and some of the symptoms of cholera include vomiting, abdominal cramps, watery bowels, and fever.

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Diarrhoea:

Diarrhoea is one of the most common waterborne diseases that mostly affect children under the age of 5. Some of the symptoms of diarrhea include dehydration, severe dizziness, loss of consciousness, pale skin and bloody stool, little or no urination.

Typhoid:

It is another disease that gets transmitted by drinking contaminated water that carries ‘Salmonellae Typhi bacteria’. Some of the symptoms through which you can understand that you are being affected by Typhoid are prolonged fever, loss of appetite, headache, constipation, exhaustion, sleepiness, and nausea. It can also be transmitted by close contact with the infected person.

Amebiasis:

Amebiasis is a kind of parasitic infection in the intestine that is caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, or E. histolytica. The single-celled protozoan usually enters the human body when the person swallows cysts through food or water. Some of the symptoms of amebiasis are the loose stool, stomach pain, and abdominal cramping.

Legionellosis:

Also known as legionnaire’s disease, this particular type of illness is caused by the Legionellabacteria. Unlike previously-mentioned waterborne diseases which target the digestive system, this one chooses another venue to attack – the respiratory system.

Japanese Encephalitis:

Japanese encephalitis is a water related disease that is caused by the Culex Tritaeniorhynchus and Culex Vishnui type of mosquitoes. Therefore, Japanese encephalitis is majorly found in the agricultural regions of India. The Japanese encephalitis virus attacks children the most and in some cases this water related disease can lead to death. The symptoms of Japanese encephalitis include fever, vomiting, headaches and in acute cases, coma, seizures and finally death.

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Filariasis

Filariasis is a parasitic disease and affects people who live near unsanitary water bodies or sewages. Filariasis is spread by mosquitoes that breeds in fresh and stagnant water bodies and is the host of the filarial nematode worm. This worm affects humans and leads to elephantitis. Although Filariasis can be treated and prevented with oral medicines, lack of medicines in rural India leads to severe disfiguration in many cases.

Dysentery:

What is dysentery, you may ask? It is probably one of the most common waterborne diseases around, having killed around 600,000 children who have not yet reached the age of five coming mostly from developing countries. The bacterial disease is caused by the microorganism called Shigella, and just like the cholera bacterium, this little dude attacks cells in the large intestine, resulting to abdominal cramps, anal pain, and bloody stool.

Botulism:

The bacterium, Clostridium botulinum, is the culprit behind botulism. Infection begins with fatigue, problems with eyesight, and slurred speech, something that water diseases are quite known for. Eventually, it progresses to weakness of the facial muscles, and this weakness spreads to the arms and legs. If not treated with antibiotics and/or an antitoxin, the poison of C. botulinum could lead to death as this little beast could even affect breathing and the production of saliva.

Vibrio Illness.

Strains of the Vibrio bacteria are usually found in saltwater, and can be carried by several marine animals like crabs, prawns, and shellfish. If you ingest it, this waterborne illness can manifest cholera-like symptoms. If it enters the body through an open wound, a nagging infection and skin ulcers may occur.

Toxin from the Vibrio bacteria can be lethal, and a visit to the doctor for the necessary antibiotics is highly recommended.

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Water scarcity in India

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Reason behind the water scarcity in India

The water scarcity is mostly man made due to excess population growth and mismanagement of water resources. Some of the major reasons for water scarcity are:

  • Inefficient use of water for agriculture. India is among the top growers of agricultural produce in the world and therefore the consumption of water for irrigation is amongst the highest. Traditional techniques of irrigation causes maximum water loss due to evaporation, drainage, percolation, water conveyance, and excess use of groundwater. As more areas come under traditional irrigation techniques, the stress for water available for other purposes will continue. The solution lies in extensive use of micro-irrigation techniques such as drip and sprinkler irrigation.

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  • Reduction in traditional water recharging areas. Rapid construction is ignoring traditional water bodies that have also acted as ground water recharging mechanism. We need to urgently revive traditional aquifers while implementing new ones.

 

  • Sewage and wastewater drainage into traditional water bodies. Government intervention at the source is urgently required if this problem is to be tackled.

 

  • Lack of on-time de-silting operations in large water bodies that can enhance water storage capacity during monsoon. It is surprising that the governments at state levels has not taken this up on priority as an annual practice. This act alone can significantly add to the water storage levels.

 

  • Lack of efficient water management and distribution of water between urban consumers, the agriculture sector and industry. The government needs to enhance its investment in technology and include all stakeholders at the planning level to ensure optimization of existing resources.

 

  • Fresh water deficit:

    Along with the strain on surface water, the country is also facing great stress with freshwater. Lack of strict state regulation on ground water development has caused a strain on the amount of freshwater available. Indifference from bureaucratic powers and constant neglect has caused the problem to intensify. In hand with the lack of government interference and continued industrial waste deposited into major rivers, most freshwater entering the bodies of water is defiled. The approximation of the untreated water entering the water sources such as rivers and lakes is 90 percent and only furthers the problem.

    Solutions to overcome water scarcity problems:

    • We are drawing more ground water than the amount of recharge through rains. Farm ponds and rainwater recharge is the only way to move forward. We are disrespecting the rain water by allowing the water flow into the sea. That is why we see frequent floods. Unless we decentralize and incorporate local storage of water by creating more ponds check dams we will keep seeing more droughts every year. After all source of water for the ground water is rain water.

     

    • A simple addition of a ‘water free’ male urinal in our homes can save well over 25,000 liters of water, per home per year. The traditional flush dispenses around six liters of water per flush. If all male members including boys of the house use the ‘water free urinal’ instead of pulling the traditional flush, the collective impact on the demand for water will reduce significantly. This must be made mandatory by law and followed up by education and awareness both at home and school.

     

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  • The amount of water that is wasted during dish washing at home is significant. We need to change our dish washing methods and minimize the habit of keeping the water running. A small step here can make a significant saving in water consumption.

 

Waste water treatment and recycling for non-drinking purposes. Several low cost technologies are available that can be implemented in group housing areas.

Very often, we see water leaking in our homes, in public areas and colonies. A small steady water leak can cause a loss of 226,800 liters of water per year! Unless we are aware and conscious of water wastage we will not be able to avail the basic quantity of water that we need to carry on with our normal lives.

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10 Benefits of 7 Day Water Fasting[2018]

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There is no set time that water fasting should last for, but medical advice generally suggests anywhere from 24 hours to 3 days as the maximum time to go without food.

Benefits of water fast

Throughout history, people have undertaken fasts for spiritual or religious reasons. But, water fasting is now popular in the natural health and wellness movements, often alongside meditation.

The Zero Calorie Diet:

The fast is intense and grueling due to the emotional challenges involved. Still, it manages to correct minor disruptions in the body as it helps purify the system. When a person takes only water, he or she is consuming ‘zero’ calories. In a body loaded with numerous toxins, both internal and external, the tissues struggle to eliminate the wastes. Our food habits further add excessive calories, thereby slowing down metabolism. Taking virtually no calories for 2 to 7 days was found to revive our tissues and system functions.

Who do fast?

Water fasts are advised for those who can handle several days of intense calorie deprivation. Individuals who have taken a 2-day fast earlier would find it easier to take a 4-day or 7-day fast. Hence, beginners can start with a 2-day water fast. Patients with medical issues require medical consultation before embarking on this plan.

Obese people trying to lose weight can take the fast and observe immediate results. Although, it is necessary to note that the lost pounds might return once the calories come back into your diet. Underweight people might find the fast too grueling, and can experience more fatigue compared to others. Some might face complications during the fast, and they need to stop it immediately.

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What Kind of Water on the Fast?

Since water is the only thing we consumed during the fast, it was important to make sure we had high quality water. We have a whole house filter and a 14-stage under the sink filter, so we were fine with drinking our tap water. Some people prefer to use distilled water while fasting.

Electrolyte depletion is one of the bigger risks of fasting so we added some high quality Himalayan salt to a couple of glasses of our water each day. This is supposed to help with the headaches and tiredness.

The amount of water is also important during a fast. Drinking too much water can cause problems, as can not drinking enough. Sources vary on the exact amount but it ranges between 2-4 quarts a day. I just drank when thirsty and added a pinch of salt to a couple glasses a day.

Benefits of 7 Day Water Fasting:

  1. Having no calories burns approximately 1 pound of fat per day, making it the fastest weight loss method.
  2. Increases insulin sensitivity as there is less fluctuation in blood sugar levels.
  3. Improves body repair, recovery and healing from decreased inflammation.
  4. Lowers stress levels, decreases blood pressure and rejuvenates the body.
  5. Increases immunity due to better cell resistance.
  6. Enables reduction in cancer cell proliferation.
  7. Slows down aging and cognitive decline.
  8. Lowers the risk of heart disease.
  9. Solves digestive problems such as gastritis, irritable bowels, constipation, diarrhea, gas, dyspepsia, and loss of appetite.
  10. Water fasting is also an opportunity for emotional and spiritual introspection. People find they have better control over their thoughts and diet, after they are done with this fast.

Water Fasting Side Effects:

  • Without calories or other nutrients from food, you’ll likely feel tired and lethargic on the water fast.
  • You may also feel dizzy and lightheaded and experience headaches, low blood pressure and abnormal heart rhythms, according to the American Cancer Society.
  • The organization also notes that these effects can make driving or operating heavy machinery more dangerous than usual and that fasting can even increase the risk of an attack in people who suffer from gout.
  • In addition, the water fast might make gallstone symptoms worse.
  • If your water fast lasts for days or longer, the risks grow dramatically. You may compromise your immune system and organ function, possibly damaging the kidneys and liver.
  • If you are continuing your metabolism will also slow as your body tries to conserve energy, so you’ll start burning fewer calories than you did in your solid-food days. Once you start eating normally again, the pounds will pile back on quickly and you may even wind up weighing more than you did when you started your fast.

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[Updated]Is Packaged Drinking Water Good For Health?

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Although vessels to bottle and transport water were part of the earliest human civilizations, bottling water began in the United Kingdom with the first water bottling at the Holy Well in 1621. The popularity of bottled mineral waters quickly led to a market for imitation products.

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It becomes expensive as the water undergoes many processes before it is bottled. On the other hand, packaged drinking water is from any source and has to be treated and disinfected, a process that could involve filtration, UV or ozone treatment, reverse osmosis before it is fit for human consumption.

Types of bottled water:

There are some common types of bottled water are,

Artesian water this is water that originates from a confined aquifer that has been tapped and in which the water level stands at some height above the top of the aquifer.

Purified water  this type of water has been produced by distillation, deionization, reverse osmosis, or other suitable processes. Purified water may also be referred to as “demineralized water”.

Well water  is taken from a hole tapping, etc. This hole may be bored, drilled, or otherwise constructed in the ground.

Fluoridated  this type of water contains added fluoride.

Sparkling water contains the same amount of carbon dioxide that it had at emergence from the source. The carbon dioxide may be removed and replenished after treatment.

Groundwater  this type of water is from an underground source that is under a pressure equal to or greater than atmospheric pressure.

Bottled water service:

It is not uncommon for business or individuals to subscribe to a bottled water service. These services deliver water either monthly or weekly, sometimes even daily. Traditionally, water in glass bottles (jugs) was provided to electric coolers in areas of businesses without plumbing. Plastic containers have replaced those glass jugs however dispensers at businesses now may stand alongside existing water taps or fountains.

Bottled water debates:

Bottled water is bought for many different reasons including taste, convenience, poor tap water quality and safety concerns, health concerns and as a substitute for sugary drinks. The environmental impact, container safety, water origin, emergency supplies and role of the bottled water industry continue to be areas of concern for many people.

Most bottled water containers are made from recyclable PET plastic, and some of these bottles end up in the waste stream in landfills. The financial and environmental costs of transportation of bottled water has been another concern because of the energy used and the consequent release of carbon dioxide and the potential impact on climate change.

In some cases it can be shown that bottled water is actually tap water. However, it is also argued that the quality specifications for some bottled waters in some jurisdictions are more stringent than the standards for tap-water.

In the USA, bottled water that comes from municipal suppliers must be clearly labeled as such unless it has been sufficiently processed to be labeled as “distilled” or “purified”.

It has been argued that bottled water companies should only exist for emergency situations when public water supplies are unsafe, unavailable or overwhelmed.  The contrary view is that if regulations are placed on the availability of bottled water, bottled water companies will not have the sufficient supplies when a water system is compromised, and that the only reason bottled water is readily available during emergencies is because the industry is maintained by routine purchases.

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Perceptions about bottled water:

Bottled water is perceived by many as being a safer alternative to other sources of water such as tap water. Bottled water usage has increased even in countries where clean tap water is present. This may be attributed to consumers disliking the taste of tap water or its organoleptics.  Another contributing factor to this shift could be the marketing success of bottled water. The success of bottled water marketing can be seen by Perrier’s transformation of a bottle of water into a status symbol.  However, while bottled water has grown in both consumption and sales, the industry’s advertising expenses are considerably less than other beverages. According to the Beverage Marketing Corporation (BMC), in 2013, the bottled water industry spent $60.6 million on advertising. That same year, sports drinks spent $128 million, sodas spent $564 million, and beer spent $1 billion.

Consumers tend to choose bottled water due to health related reasons. In communities that experience problems with their tap water, bottled water consumption is significantly higher. The International Bottled Water Association guidelines state that bottled water companies cannot compare their product to tap water in marketing operations. Consumers are also affected by memories associated with particular brands. For example, Coca-Cola took their Dasani product off the UK market after finding levels of bromate that were higher than legal standards because consumers in the UK associated this flaw with the Dasani product.

Health Concerns:

In some areas, tap water may contain added fluoride, which helps prevent tooth decay and cavities. Some bottled water manufacturers in the United States add fluoride to their product, or provide a fluoridated bottled water product.

The Food and Drug Administration of the United States does not require bottled water manufacturers to list the fluoride content on the label. However, unlike tap water where the amount of fluoride added by municipalities to drinking water is not federally regulated, the FDA has set specific limits for how much fluoride may be found in bottled water.

According to a 1999 NRDC study, in which roughly 22 percent of brands were tested, at least one sample of bottled drinking water contained chemical contaminants at levels above strict state health limits. Some of the contaminants found in the study could pose health risks if consumed over a long period of time. The NRDC report conceded that “most waters contained no detectable bacteria, however, and the level of synthetic organic chemicals and inorganic chemicals of concern for which were tested were either below detection limits or well below all applicable standards.

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15 Ways to make drinking water taste better

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  • Add fresh fruits in to the water Citrus fruits, such as lemons, limes, and oranges, are classic water enhancers, but other fruit flavors might also tempt your taste buds.

 

  • Try crushing fresh raspberries or watermelon into your water, or adding strawberry slices. Cucumber and fresh mint are refreshing flavors as well.

 

  • Use fresh juice, any fruit juice can be a good base flavor for water, but tart juices, like cranberry, pomegranate, grape, and apple, are especially delicious.

 

  • Fruits and their juices don’t just taste good it also helps to consume vitamins and antioxidants that can benefit your health too.

 

  • If plain old water isn’t inspiring to you, try a naturally effervescent mineral water, which will give you the added benefit of minerals.

 

  • An another way to make drinking water to healthier than normal one to use bubbly seltzer, a carbonated water. You can add fresh fruit or natural juice flavors to your seltzer, as suggested above, or look for naturally flavored seltzers at your local market.

 

  • Do some creative ideas with ice.Some say that ice water tastes better than water served at room temperature. If that’s so, flavored ice cubes may make an even better drink.

 

  • Use some of the flavoring suggestions above and start experimenting with fresh fruit, mint, or cucumber ice cubes. Simply chop your additive of choice, add it to your ice cube tray along with water, then freeze.

 

  • You may also consider juice, tea, or coffee cubes. If you want to be more creative, use ice cube trays that come in fun shapes, like stars, circles, or even fish.

 

  • After boiling vegetables, such as carrots, reserve the water and chill overnight for a vitamin-packed blast of flavor.

 

  • Add some artificial sweetener, like Splenda or Stevia, to give your drink pep without the calories.

 

  • Add some rose petals into water, it will give some good fragrance while drinking.

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  • Adding a small pinch of salt and a splash of juice to drinking water helps your body to absorb it better so you’ll feel rehydrated faster.

 

  • Fresh herbs such as basil, lemongrass, lavender, peppermint or cinnamon can quickly lend a lot of flavor to your water. Get creative with your herbs and try different combinations to keep things interesting.

 

  • For a warm, tasty treat that will also hydrate you better than plain water, drink a mug of low-sodium broth. The nutrients and proteins in broth also make it one of the best foods for combating a cold or the flu!

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[UPDATED] WATER PURIFICATION PROCESS

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Water purification plays a key role in ensuring access to safe drinking water. Safe drinking water positively impacts the health of the entire community. Systems are in place to ensure ongoing water quality, including water quality testing. The testing helps ensure the water treatment process results in a product that meets federal water quality guidelines. Water analysis involves looking for several kinds of contaminants, including unsafe levels of organic, inorganic, microbial and/or radioactive contaminants.

water purification process

There are several steps in Water purification process,

  • Screening
  • Coagulation and flocculation
  • Sedimentation
  • Dissolved air flotation
  • Filtration
  • Membrane Filtration
  • Removal of ions and other dissolved substances
  • Disinfection
Screening:

The first step in purifying surface water is to remove large debris such as sticks, leaves, rubbish and other large particles which may interfere with subsequent purification steps. Most deep groundwater does not need screening before other purification steps.

Coagulation and flocculation:

After getting the water from screening process enter into the coagulation process. In this water purification processes is the addition of chemicals to assist in the removal of particles suspended in water. Particles can be inorganic such as clay and silt or organic such as algae, bacteria, viruses, protozoa and natural organic matter. Inorganic and organic particles contribute to the turbidity and color of water.

The addition of inorganic coagulants such as aluminum sulfate  or iron  salts such as iron chloride cause several simultaneous chemical and physical interactions on and among the particles. Within seconds, negative charges on the particles are neutralized by inorganic coagulants. Also within seconds, metal hydroxide precipitates of the iron and aluminum ions begin to form. These precipitates combine into larger particles under natural processes such as Brownian motion and through induced mixing which is sometimes referred to as flocculation. The term most often used for the amorphous metal hydroxides is “floc.” Large, amorphous aluminum and iron hydroxides adsorb and enmesh particles in suspension and facilitate the removal of particles by subsequent processes of sedimentation and filtration.

In the literature, there is much debate and confusion over the usage of the terms coagulation and flocculation—where does coagulation end and flocculation begin? In water purification plants, there is usually a high energy, rapid mix unit process where the coagulant chemicals are added followed by flocculation basins where low energy inputs turn large paddles or other gentle mixing devices to enhance the formation of floc. In fact, coagulation and flocculation processes are ongoing once the metal salt coagulants are added.

Sedimentation:

Waters exiting the flocculation basin may enter the sedimentation basin, also called a clarifier or settling basin. It is a large tank with low water velocities, allowing floc to settle to the bottom. The sedimentation basin is best located close to the flocculation basin so the transit between the two processes does not permit settlement or floc break up. Sedimentation basins may be rectangular, where water flows from end to end or circular where flow is from the centre outward. Sedimentation basin outflow is typically over a weir so only a thin top layer of water—that furthest from the sludge—exits.

Inclined flat plates or tubes can be added to traditional sedimentation basins to improve particle removal performance. Inclined plates and tubes drastically increase the surface area available for particles to be removed in concert with Hazen’s original theory. The amount of ground surface area occupied by a sedimentation basin with inclined plates or tubes can be far smaller than a conventional sedimentation basin.

Dissolved air flotation (DAF):

When particles to be removed do not settle out of solution easily, dissolved air flotation is often used. After coagulation and flocculation processes, water flows to DAF tanks where air diffusers on the tank bottom create fine bubbles that attach to floc resulting in a floating mass of concentrated floc. The floating floc blanket is removed from the surface and clarified water is withdrawn from the bottom of the DAF tank. Water supplies that are particularly vulnerable to unicellular algae blooms and supplies with low turbidity and high colour often employ DAF.

Filtration:

After separating most floc, the water is filtered as the final step to remove remaining suspended particles and unsettled floc.

There are two types of filters are available,

  • Slow sand filter
  • Rapid sand filter
 Slow sand filter:

Slow sand filters may be used where there is sufficient land and space, as the water must be passed very slowly through the filters. These filters rely on biological treatment processes for their action rather than physical filtration. The filters are carefully constructed using graded layers of sand, with the coarsest sand, along with some gravel, at the bottom and finest sand at the top. Drains at the base convey treated water away for disinfection.  Filtration depends on the development of a thin biological layer, called the zoogleal layer on the surface of the filter. An effective slow sand filter may remain in service for many weeks or even months if the pretreatment is well designed.

Rapid sand filter:

The most common type of filter is a rapid sand filter. Water moves vertically through sand which often has a layer of activated carbon or anthracite coal above the sand. The top layer removes organic compounds, which contribute to taste and odour. The space between sand particles is larger than the smallest suspended particles, so simple filtration is not enough. Most particles pass through surface layers but are trapped in pore spaces or adhere to sand particles. Effective filtration extends into the depth of the filter. This property of the filter is key to its operation: if the top layer of sand were to block all the particles, the filter would quickly clog.

Membrane filtration:

Membrane filters are widely used for filtering both drinking water and sewage. For drinking water, membrane filters can remove virtually all particles larger than 0.2 μm. Membrane filters are an effective form of tertiary treatment when it is desired to reuse the water for industry, for limited domestic purposes, or before discharging the water into a river that is used by towns further downstream.

Removal of ions and other dissolved substances:

Ion exchange: Ion exchange systems use ion exchange resin to replace unwanted ions. The most common case is water softening consisting of removal of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions replacing them with benign (soap friendly) Na+ or K+ ions. Ion exchange resins are also used to remove toxic ions such as nitrite, lead, mercury, arsenic and many others.

Precipitative softening: Water rich in hardness is treated with lime and soda-ash to precipitate calcium carbonate out of solution utilizing the common-ion effect.

Electrodeionization: Water is passed between a positive electrode and a negative electrode. Ion exchange membranes allow only positive ions to migrate from the treated water toward the negative electrode and only negative ions toward the positive electrode. High purity deionized water is produced continuously, similar to ion exchange treatment. Complete removal of ions from water is possible if the right conditions are met. The water is normally pre-treated with a reverse osmosis unit to remove non-ionic organic contaminants, and with gas transfer membranes to remove carbon dioxide. A water recovery of 99% is possible if the concentrate stream is fed to the RO inlet.

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Disinfection:

Disinfection is accomplished both by filtering out harmful micro-organisms and also by adding disinfectant chemicals. Water is disinfected to kill any pathogens which pass through the filters and to provide a residual dose of disinfectant to kill or inactivate potentially harmful micro-organisms in the storage and distribution systems.

There are five types of disinfection methods are available,

  • Chlorine disinfection
  • Chlorine dioxide disinfection
  • Chloramine disinfection
  • Ozone disinfection
  • Ultraviolet disinfection
Potable water purification:

Potable water purification devices and methods are available for disinfection and treatment in emergencies or in remote locations. Disinfection is the primary goal, since aesthetic considerations such as taste, odor, appearance, and trace chemical contamination do not affect the short-term safety of drinking water.

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IMPORTANCE OF WATER TO KIDS

Here we can see the importance of water to kids. We are the best water purifier service in chennai.

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Why Is Drinking Water Important  For Kids?

Our bodies are made of about 70 per cent water – it’s what makes up the majority of our blood, digestive juices and sweat, and it’s found in our organs and muscle cells.

Water is used to metabolise fuel, regulate body temperature and digest food. To enable our bodies to carry out all of its functions in the day, water constantly moves about and is lost in the air we breathe, urine, blood loss, sweat and even tears. Children in particular need to make sure they re-hydrate, as water is the main way they regulate their body temperature.

Water contains no energy and in most States of Australia, tap water has been fortified with fluoride to help protect against tooth decay. Australia’s water supply is one of the safest and cheapest in the world so drinking tap is cost effective and good for your health.

Can Less Intake Of Water Harm Kids?

Don’t wait to serve your child a glass of water until he says that he is thirsty. If your child does not drink, the adequate amount of water, he is likely to suffer from dehydration. He may suffer from the following symptoms:

  • dry mouth and lips
  • excessive fatigue
  • lethargy and lack of energy
  • sunken eyes
  • dizzy spells
  • no tears when he/she cries
  • dark, smelly urine
  • headaches

You should immediately take your child to the doctor for treatment when you observe dehydration. The condition can also occur when your child suffers from food poisoning or fever. Playing outside in the sun for long hours too may cause dehydration in kids.

Tips to help your kids stay hydrated:

  • Pack a water bottle for school and when you go out. Try a frozen water bottle in summer.
  • Encourage your child to drink water before, after and during physical activity.
  • Always offer water with meals and snacks.
  • Encourage your child to drink water, even if they don’t like it.

How much water does my child need?

The amount your child needs will vary depending on their age, size and level of activity. For children under 8 years of age, at least 4-6 glasses of water are recommended. For children older than 8 years of age a minimum of 6-8 glasses is recommended. If your child is playing sports or is very active they will need extra fluid, see our section on hydration for active kids. Kids will also need more fluid on hot days or when unwell.

How Drinking Enough Water Can Help Your Kid?

Drinking water can help your kid in the following ways:

  • Helps in maintaining his weight.
  • Helps in regulating your child’s body temperature.
  • Aids the transportation of nutrients to different parts of the body.
  • Alleviates Constipation and Urinary problems.
  • Improves oral health as water contains fluoride.

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Tips To Teach Your Child About The Importance Of Drinking Water:

Here are some handy tips to ensure your kid learns to drink enough water:

  • You can teach children about the importance of drinking water in daily life through pictures, videos and by example.
  • You can show your child two plants one that grows well when you water it and the one that withers when you don’t water it.
  • Make sweet drinks a treat for drinking enough water.
  • Give your child a refillable water bottle that he can take with him when he goes out to play.
  • Teaching your child, the importance of drinking water is a healthy lifestyle choice that you can help him make.

Tips for kids who don’t like water

  • Try adding slices of fruits such as lemon or orange to water, for variety and flavor.
  • Let your kids choose their own drink bottle or serve water in colorful glasses or jugs.
  • Be a role model! Make a point of drinking water with your kids.
  • Experiment with temperature; try having a jug of water in the fridge, adding ice-cubes, or even warm water in winter.

Water is the best choice to keep your kids hydrated throughout the day. Water contains no extra energy and can quench your thirst. Other fluids such as milk, juice and sweetened drinks can also contribute to your child’s fluid intake.

Conclusion :

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