Water resources Management

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Water management means dealing with water in the best possible way. This can be done by local authorities or it can be done by individuals at home.

Good water management will involve organizing water so that everyone has enough, and controlling water supplies and water treatment centers so that they work in the best possible way. It thus often involves some knowledge of the chemical properties of water.

The importance of water management

water resource management

Water management affects many aspects of our lives. Water is so common that we often do not think about where it comes from or where it is managed. But, bad water management can really hit us hard. Below are some key ways in which water management is important.

1. Drinking water: humans need to drink around 8 glasses of water a day in order to get sufficient hydration. So clean drinking water is necessity for us. Without water, we can only survive for a few days at most. But, if we have water and no food, we can survive for several weeks. This shows just how crucial it is that we have daily access to clean water that is suitable for drinking. If we have pets, they will need daily access to water too.

2. Washing and cleaning: we also use water to keep ourselves, our clothes and our homes clean and hygienic. A clean water supply is important for this too. From washing our hands before a meal to deep cleaning a hospital floor, we need clean water for almost all aspects of good hygiene.
3. Agriculture: water is used throughout the world to grow crops such as grains and fruits. A good water supply is needed to prevent hunger and famine.

4. Leisure and fun: swimming, boating and many other leisure activities involve water. Swimming pools and other facilities need to be well maintained so that they remain safe and enjoyable places to be. Swimming pool water needs to be managed by treating it with chlorine and regularly testing its levels of bacteria and other substances, for instance, to ensure that it is safe for people to swim in.

5. Biodiversity: managing water well ensures that we do not deplete or contaminate rivers, lakes and other important water sources which are habitats for a wide range of birds, mammals, fish, reptiles and amphibians as well as water dwelling plants.
Methods of water management

There are several water management methods available in the world, and these are being honed all the time as scientists and engineers find new ways to look after our water supplies. Below are 5 key water management strategies that are widely used today.

Water resource management

1. Waste water systems – recycling and treating: sewage systems help to dispose of waste water in a clean and safe way. They also very often involve recycling water and treating it so that it is safe to be piped back into people’s homes and used for drinking, washing and so on. These systems are absolutely essential for ensuring that our waste water does not cause us to fall ill.

2. Irrigation systems: good quality irrigation systems can be deployed to nourish crops in drought hit areas. These systems can be managed so that water is not wasted – and they can use recycled water or rain water to avoid unnecessarily depleting water supplies.

3. Conserving water: both big companies and private individuals can conserve many gallons of water every day, simply by not running taps or using water-guzzling appliances unnecessarily. Water can also be conserved by generally consuming less. Not many people realize how much water goes in to the production of a car or an item of clothing, for example. Cutting down on the amount of things that we buy can really reduce the amount of water that is needed to support our lifestyle.

4. Caring for the natural water supplies: natural water sources such as lakes, rivers and seas are so important. Both fresh water ecosystems and marine ecosystems are home to a wide variety of different organisms and without the support of these ecosystems, these organisms would most likely become extinct. Good water management thus also involves ensuring that we do not pollute natural water sources.

5. Effective implementation of plans – ensuring that everyone has enough water: there is no denying that easy access to fresh, clean, safe water is a right that all humans should enjoy. However, in many parts of the world, people have to walk many miles in order to access clean water. So, good water management systems are only truly praiseworthy if they are implemented throughout the world so that everyone can benefit from them. Good water management means not just a convenient and safe water supply for some people – but water for everyone to use.


Good water management should be an absolute priority for every generation, and for every government throughout the world. More should be done to ensure that absolutely everyone in the world has daily access to safe, clean water that they can use for drinking, washing and growing crops.

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How to Maintain Your RO Water Purifier

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In the pollution- ridden and highly toxic atmosphere we live in today, it is necessary to ensure that we at least consume purified and good quality water. Since the human body majorly consists of water, it is essential that the water we drink is fresh and free of contaminants that may harm the body. One of the best ways to get purified water is by purchasing water purifier for the home. In the pollution- ridden and highly toxic atmosphere we live in today, it is necessary to ensure that we at least consume purified and good quality water. Since the human body majorly consists of water, it is essential that the water we drink is fresh and free of contaminants that may harm the body. One of the best ways to get purified water is by purchasing water purifier for the home.
RO water purifiers are known to be one of the best purifiers in the world. It is a simple and uncomplicated water purification process that filters impurities and contaminants from tap water to give clean and fresh water, ready for consumption. One may use the clean and healthy water for drinking.

While there are a number of water purifiers available in the market, it makes sense to purchase the RO water purifier. This is because it has numerous advantages over other usual purifiers on offer. RO based system maintains an equilibrium in water, and filters out only the harmful and disease causing contaminants. The minerals and good bacteria, which is required by the body, are retained by the filtration process.

1. Changing RO filters on a regular basis:

A water purifier generally has three to five filtration stages. The filters need to be changed periodically as they become filled with impurities and stop working.

• The pre-filtering stage consists of a filter cartridge that leaves out sand and other sediments. The pre-filtering stage prevents the reverse osmosis membrane from getting damaged. You must change the pre-filter cartridge every six to nine months.

• The second phase of the filtration process is a carbon filter that removes chlorine and bad odor. Chlorine also potentially damages the RO membrane and must also get changed periodically, after every six to nine months.

• The third phase is the reverse osmosis stage where the residual sediments are excluded from the membrane and drained. You can replace this membrane after two to three years. Either do it yourself or call RO experts from Urban Clap to fix this.  The condition of the RO membrane also depends on the quality of your local water supply.

2. Cleaning and sanitization:

The water purifier must be cleaned well by professionals as the system can get ruined during disconnection of the RO tank. Basically, your water purifier needs to go through a sanitization and a recharge once every year. Specific sanitization kits are also available and they can be purchased through various online stores if you feel like doing it manually. A user manual also comes with the water purifier system. In case you have lost it or have not been provided with one, here are the instructions for you: Begin by shutting off the mains supply of the water tank and then turning off the water supply from the shut-off valve. After that, the receiving water line connected to the RO tank is released by a wrench. You can use the sanitization kits for cleaning the insides of the tank. After cleaning, you need to reassemble the storage tank and finally, turn the water supply back on. You should avoid drinking the water right after reassembling the system.

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3. Installing a softener for extra efficient functioning:

Softeners work great with a water purifier systems because the RO membranes are delicate in front of water-hardening minerals such as calcium and magnesium. Together with an RO membrane, softener safeguards and extends the durability. You might also observe the corrosion caused by hard water in your own home. Adding softeners can be difficult as you need to know where to install it. Generally, professionals are required to do this process – some heavy amount of plumbing is needed as the softeners have to be placed at the point where the water gets into your house.

4. Keeping the exteriors of the water purifier clean

In order to make your system last longer, for around 12 to 15 years, you need to clean it. Using some soapy water from the outside of the water purifier quite regularly also does the job. Also, make sure you keep cleaning the tap that is attached to the water purifier often.At Urban Clap, you can find professionals who would come to your home and provide the necessary help to elongate the durability of your water purifier. Some of the procedures can be done by yourself but you also run the risk of ruining it while reassembling the system. You do not have to worry about having the perfect-sized wrenches while disengaging the tank from the water supply. We also provide organic sanitizing materials that clean the insides of your tank.If cleaning yourself, you’ll want to consult your owner’s manual for specific details on how to sanitize your system, but here’s the process in general terms:

• Shut off the main valve completely

• Next dispense all of the water from your RO faucet Remove the sediment  and carbon filters from their housing

• Remove the RO membrane from housing• Keep the filters out of their housings, but screw the housings back in place

• Pour about 1 cup of hydrogen peroxide into stage one housing

• Reattach all connections

• Turn the main valve back on

• Allow the system to run (without the filters, the storage tank will refill rapidly)

• Let the system run at least through 2 cycles

• Shut off the main valve again

• Install the new filters

• Let the tank fill back up and then drain one more time


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Activated Carbon Filters

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Activated carbon filters are generally employed in the process of removing organic compounds and/or extracting free chlorine from water, thereby making the water suitable for discharge or use in manufacturing processes.

Eliminating organics in potable water, such as humic and fulvic acid, prevents chlorine in the water from chemically reacting with the acids and forming trihalomethanes, a class of known carcinogens.Activated carbon filters are generally employed in the process of removing organic compounds and/or extracting free chlorine from water, thereby making the water suitable for discharge or use in manufacturing processes. Eliminating organics in potable water, such as humic and fulvic acid, prevents chlorine in the water from chemically reacting with the acids and forming trihalomethanes, a class of known carcinogens.

Activated Carbon (AC) filtration, as with any water treatment method, is not capable of removing every possible type of contaminant. For example, sodium, microbes, fluoride, and nitrates cannot be removed with AC filtration. Water softening also cannot be achieved with AC filters. In addition, heavy metals, such as lead, can only be removed with a very specific kind of activated carbon water treatment, which is typically used only in residential point-of-use filters.

activated carbon

High-Tech Filtration:There are many types of high-tech activated carbon filters available for industrial filtration systems. Activated carbon can exhibit varying performance characteristics depending upon the strata from which it is derived (e.g., bituminous or anthracite coal, bone char, coconut shell) and the way it is manufactured. The methods used to create the various AC materials are highly proprietary and lead to distinct differences across the range of media available to the industry. Water Professionals can specify high-tech filtration methods for the identified contaminates and the level of purity required. This is why it is critical to match up the correct activated carbon bed with the particular need.

This will achieve the most efficient filtering and the longest use interval for the equipment.Coconut shells and coal (anthracite or bituminous) are both organic sources of activated carbon. Carbon forms when an organic source is burned in an environment without oxygen. This process leaves only about 30% of the organic mass intact, driving off heavy organic molecules. Prior to being used for water treatment, the organic mass must then be “activated.” The process of activation opens up the carbon’s massive number of pores and further drives off unwanted molecules. The open pores are what allow the carbon to capture contaminants, known as “adsorption”. The rate of adsorption for a surface area of a just one pound of AC is equal to 60-150 acres!

There are two types of activation methods:Steam activationChemical activationActivated carbon water treatment is basically used for two water treatment purposes and each work in totally different ways.How it works?

1. Chlorine Removal: Activated carbon may be used to remove chlorine with little degradation or damage to the carbon. Dechlorination occurs rapidly and flow rates are typically high. However, this process requires an extensive amount of surface area, and organics in the water will eventually fill up and block the pores of the carbon. Ultimately, the activated carbon filter will need to be replaced as its ability to dechlorinate the water will slowly decline. Spent carbon can be re-activated; however, re-activated filters should only be used in waste-water treatment applications. One advantage to using AC is its low operating cost and virtual “fail safe” operation once installed. One disadvantage is that as the chlorine is removed from the topmost layer of the media, the AC provides a damp environment ideal for the growth and proliferation of bacteria. Bacteria can cause problems in medical applications, or when using carbon as a pretreatment to reverse osmosis.

2. Removal of Organic Matter: As water passes through an activated carbon filter, organic particles and chemicals are trapped inside through a process known “adsorption”.

The adsorption process depends upon 5 key factors:

1) Physical properties of the activated carbon (surface area and pore size distribution);

2) The chemical makeup of the carbon source (amount of hydrogen and oxygen);

3) The chemical makeup and concentration of the contaminant;

4) Water pH and temperature;

5) The length of time the water is exposed to the activated carbon filter (called empty bed contact time or EBCT).

activated carbon

Additional considerations for organics removal are discussed below:

1. Physical Properties: Pore size and distribution have the greatest impact on the effectiveness of AC filtration. The best filtration occurs when carbon pores are barely large enough to allow for the adsorption of contaminants (Figure 1). The type of contaminants an AC filter attracts will depend on the pore size of the filter, which varies based on the type of carbon used and the activation method. AC filters tend to work best for removing organic chemicals with larger molecules.

2. Chemical Properties: The surface of an activated carbon filter may also interact chemically with organic molecules. Electrical forces between the AC surface and the chemical nature of some contaminants may result in ion exchange or adsorption. The activation process determines, to a large extent, the chemical properties of the AC filter, making the filter attractive to various contaminants. Different activation processes will yield activated carbon with different chemical properties. For example, AC that has the least amount of oxygen in pore surfaces will absorb chloroform the best.

3. Contaminant Properties: Activated Carbon is best for use in filtering out large organic molecules. AC and organic molecules are similar materials, which means they will tend to associate with each other. This means organic chemicals will have a stronger tendency to associate with the AC filter rather than remaining dissolved in water. The less soluble organic molecules are, the more likely they are to be adsorbed. Smaller organic molecules fit the smallest pores and are held the tightest.

4. Concentration: The adsorption process can be affected by the concentration of organic contaminants. For example, with chloroform removal one AC filter may be more effective than another at filtering high concentrations of contaminants, and less effective at filtering low concentration of contaminants. Consult with the manufacturer to determine how an activated carbon filter will perform at different concentration levels for a specific chemical.

5. Water Temperature and pH: The rate of adsorption will usually be higher at lower temperatures and pH levels. Chemical reactions and chemical forms are closely related to water temperature and pH. In most cases, organic chemicals are more adsorbable as temperatures and pH levels decrease.

6. Length of Exposure: The length of time in which the contaminant is in contact with the AC filter also influences the adsorption process – the longer the length of contact, the greater the number of contaminants that will be removed. A greater amount of active carbon and a slower flow rate will improve the effectiveness of the filtration process. Bed depth and flow rate are critical design parameters. Carbon filtration is often engineered to provide a specified residence time of water in contact with the carbon bed, referred to as empty bed contact time or EBCT.

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Osmosis is a phenomenon where pure water flows from a dilute solution through a semi permeable membrane to a higher concentrated solution. Semi permeable means that the membrane will allow small molecules and ions to pass through it but acts as a barrier to larger molecules or dissolved substances. To illustrate this, assume that a semi permeable membrane is placed between two compartments in a tank. Assume the membrane is permeable to water, but not to salt. If we place a salt solution in one compartment and pure water solution in the other one, the system will try to reach equilibrium by having the same concentration on both sides of the membrane. The only possible way to do this is for water to pass from the pure water compartment to the saltwater compartment.

reverse osmosis

As water passes through the membrane to the salt solution, the level of liquid in the saltwater compartment will rise until enough pressure, caused by the difference in levels between the two compartments, is generated to stop the osmosis. This pressure, equivalent to a force that the osmosis seems to exert in trying to equalize concentrations on both sides of the membrane, is called osmotic pressure.

If pressure greater than the osmotic pressure is applied to the high concentration the direction of water flow through the membrane can be reversed. This is called reverse osmosis (abbreviated RO). Note that this reversed flow produces pure water from the salt solution, since the membrane is not permeable to salt.If pressure greater than the osmotic pressure is applied to the high concentration the direction of water flow through the membrane can be reversed. This is called reverse osmosis (abbreviated RO). Note that this reversed flow produces pure water from the salt solution, since the membrane is not permeable to salt.

How Does Reverse Osmosis Work?

Diffusion is the movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration. Osmosis is a special case of diffusion in which the molecules are water and the concentration gradient occurs across a semi permeable membrane. The semi permeable membrane allows the passage of water, but not ions (e.g., Na+, Ca2+, Cl-) or larger molecules (e.g., glucose, urea, bacteria). Diffusion and osmosis are thermodynamically favorable and will continue until equilibrium is reached. Osmosis can be slowed, stopped, or even reversed if sufficient pressure is applied to the membrane from the ‘concentrated’ side of the membrane.Reverse osmosis occurs when the water is moved across the membrane against the concentration gradient, from lower concentration to higher concentration. To illustrate, imagine a semi permeable membrane with fresh water on one side and a concentrated aqueous solution on the other side. If normal osmosis takes place, the fresh water will cross the membrane to dilute the concentrated solution. In reverse osmosis, pressure is exerted on the side with the concentrated solution to force the water molecules across the membrane to the fresh water side.

reverse osmosis

What contaminants will Reverse Osmosis remove from water?Reverse Osmosis is capable of removing up to 99%+ of the dissolved salts (ions), particles, colloids, organics, bacteria and pyrogens from the feed water (although an RO system should not be relied upon to remove 100% of bacteria and viruses). An RO membrane rejects contaminants based on their size and charge. Any contaminant that has a molecular weight greater than 200 is likely rejected by a properly running RO system (for comparison a water molecule has a MW of 18). Likewise, the greater the ionic charge of the contaminant, the more likely it will be unable to pass through the RO membrane. For example, a sodium ion has only one charge (monovalent) and is not rejected by the RO membrane as well as calcium for example, which has two charges. Likewise, this is why an RO system does not remove gases such as CO2 very well because they are not highly ionized (charged) while in solution and have a very low molecular weight. Because an RO system does not remove gases, the permeate water can have a slightly lower than normal pH level depending on CO2 levels in the feed water as the CO2 is converted to carbonic acid.Reverse Osmosis is very effective in treating brackish, surface and ground water for both large and small flows applications. Some examples of industries that use RO water include pharmaceutical, boiler feed water, food and beverage, metal finishing and semiconductor manufacturing to name a few.RO Membrane CleaningRO membranes will inevitably require periodic cleaning, anywhere from 1 to 4 times a year depending on the feed water quality. As a general rule, if the normalized pressure drop or the normalized salt passage has increased by 15%, then it is time to clean the RO membranes. If the normalized permeate flow has decreased by 15% then it is also time to clean the RO membranes. You can either clean the RO membranes in place or have them removed from the RO system and cleaned off site by a service company that specializes in this service. It has been proven that offsite membrane cleaning is more effective at providing a better cleaning than onsite cleaning skids.RO membrane cleaning involves low and high pH cleaners to remove contaminants from the membrane. Scaling is addressed with low pH cleaners and organics, colloidal and biofouling are treated with a high pH cleaner. Cleaning RO membranes is not only about using the appropriate chemicals. There are many other factors involved such as flows, water temperature and quality, properly designed and sized cleaning skids and many other factors that an experienced service group must address in order to properly clean RO membranes.Benefits of reverse osmosis mechanism:

• Reverse Osmosis method gives a water taste better than others.

• After the water getting from the cleaning process of reverse osmosis has no contaminants.

• The reverse osmosis system consumes less amount of energy.

• Ro machine is small one compared to others so it is space saving one too.

• Ro system has a different level of purification.

• Ro system is one of the most economically system of purification.


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Types Of Water Resources

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Water resources are under major stress around the world. Rivers, lakes, and underground aquifers supply fresh water for irrigation, drinking, and sanitation, while the oceans provide habitat for a large share of the planet’s food supply. Today, however, expansion of agriculture, damming, diversion, over-use, and pollution threaten these irreplaceable resources in many parts of the globe. Providing safe drinking water for the more than 1 billion people who currently lack it is one of the greatest public health challenges facing national governments today. In many developing countries, safe water, free of pathogens and other contaminants, is unavailable to much of the population, and water contamination remains a concern even for developed countries with good water supplies and advanced treatment systems. And over-development, especially in coastal regions and areas with strained water supplies, is leading many regions to seek water from more and more distant sources.

Distribution of Freshwater Resources:

Freshwater accounts for only some 6 percent of the world’s water supply, but is essential for human uses such as drinking, agriculture, manufacturing, and sanitation.

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As discussed above, two-thirds of global freshwater is found underground. If you dig deeply enough anywhere on Earth, you will hit water. Some people picture groundwater as an underground river or lake, but in reality it is rarely a distinct water body (large caves in limestone aquifers are one exception). Rather, groundwater typically fills very small spaces (pores) within rocks and between sediment grains. The water table is the top of the saturated zone (Fig. 3). It may lie hundreds of meters deep in deserts or near the surface in moist ecosystems. Water tables typically shift from season to season as precipitation and transpiration levels change, moving up during rainy periods or periods of little transpiration and sinking during dry phases when the rate of recharge (precipitation minus evaporation and transpiration that infiltrates from the surface) drops. In temperate regions the water table tends to follow surface topography, rising under hills where there is little discharge to streams and falling under valleys where the water table intersects the surface in the form of streams, lakes, and springs.

Of all of this water, only about 2.5 percent is freshwater: the other 97.5 percent is saltwater. Almost 69 percent of freshwater resources are tied up in glaciers and ice caps, about 30 percent is groundwater, and a mere 0.27 percent is surface water. While all kinds of water resources are important for the survival of the planet, accessible freshwater is especially important for humans.

Saltwater resources:

As mentioned, saltwater is abundant in the surface of the planet. However, saltwater is currently not particularly useful when it comes to potable water supplies. Desalination plants, while they do exist, are scarce because the energy required for desalination makes the process extremely expensive.

That said, there are saltwater resources from which humans benefit, aside from beautiful ocean views. Saltwater fish are a staple in much of the world’s diet (although overfishing and pollution has put much of the marine life population at risk). Furthermore, tidal waters are being used as a source of hydroelectric energy. So, while saltwater is not helpful in dealing with scarce water supplies, it does provide resources that humans rely on.

Groundwater resources:

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Groundwater is the most plentiful of all freshwater resources. As water percolates into the ground through layers of soil, clay, and rock, some of it adheres to the topmost layers to provide water to plants. This water is in what is called the unsaturated, or zone. Most of the pores in the vadose zone are filled with air, rather than water. Gravity continues to move the water down through the ground. Eventually, the water reaches the saturated zone, where all the pores are filled with water. The separation between the saturated and unsaturated zone is called the water table. Aquifers are areas of permeable rock that hold water. Typically, aquifers are made of bedrock that has many fractures and connected pores, such as limestone, sandstone and gravel. Shale and clay layers are impermeable, and therefore make poor aquifers. An aquifer is “recharged” through precipitation from above percolating through the layers of soil and rock. Therefore, there is significant interaction between surface water and ground water. In turn, groundwater feeds surface water through springs, and surface water can also recharge groundwater supply. Most often, groundwater is accessed by humans via wells. To build a well, one must drill down past the water table. In most cases, a pump is placed in the bottom of the well, and it is pumped into homes, businesses and water treatment plants, where it is then dispersed.

As water is pumped from the ground, a cone of depression forms around the well. The groundwater from the surrounding area moves towards the well. Wells can run dry during times of drought, or if surrounding wells are pumping too much water, causing the cone of depression to be large. Water pumped from wells is generally very clean. The layers of soil, clay and rock acts as a natural filter. However, contaminants from nearby contaminated soils, leaky underground tanks, and septic systems can pollute a well, rendering it unusable.

Furthermore, salt water intrusion can occur when the rate of pumping near a shoreline exceeds the rate of recharge. Saltwater gets pulled from the ocean into the cone of depression, and enters the well. Subsidence, the gradual settling of the land due to continuous pumping and development, has also become an issue as groundwater is mined. This occurs when groundwater is pumped out faster than it can be replenished, and the sediment beneath becomes compacted. Subsidence is a permanent phenomenon. It can cause structural problems to foundations, an increased incidence of sinkholes and flooding problems. To top it off, subsidence is extremely costly. In some areas, such as the San Joaquin Valley in California, the land has subsided over 30 feet due to groundwater withdraw.

Surface water resources:

Surface water is the water that exists in streams and lakes. This water is primarily used for potable water supply, recreation, irrigation, industry, livestock, transportation and hydroelectric energy. Over 63 percent of the public water supply is withdrawn from surface water. Irrigation gets 58 percent of its water supply from surface water. Industry gets almost 98 percent of its water from surface water systems. Therefore, surface water conservation and quality is of the utmost importance. Watershed organizations continuously measure the stream flow and quality of surface water. Stream flow is monitored to warn of flooding and drought conditions. Water quality is very important, as the majority of the water used in the United States comes from surface water. It is the measure of how suitable the water is from a biological, chemical and physical perspective. Water quality can be impacted negatively by both natural and human causes: electrical conductivity, pH, temperature, phosphorus levels, dissolved oxygen levels, nitrogen levels and bacteria are tested as a measure of water quality. Water that runs off into the stream can naturally carry sediment, debris and pathogens. Turbidity, the measure of suspended sediment in a stream, is also a measure of water quality. The more turbid the water, the lower the water quality. Manmade contaminants such as gasoline, solvents, pesticides, and nitrogen from livestock can wash over the land and can leach in to waterways, degrading the quality of nearby waters. The Clean Water Act in the United States protects the quality of the stream and issues fines to those contributing to the degradation in water quality. By protecting and conserving the water supply, there is a greater guarantee of future water resources for human use.

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Harmful Impurities Found In Drinking Water

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Water is our life line. One cannot imagine what would happen to mankind without water. If there is no water there would be no life on earth. The only living being that does not understand the importance of water is human, especially the industrialized countries.

An average person can spend weeks without eating food but he or she cannot spend 2-3 days without drinking water. It not only quenches your thirst but also plays a vital role in metabolism of the body by helping in digestion and excretion.

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Pure water is colorless, odorless and tasteless, it is chemically made of two components that is hydrogen and oxygen. Because water is a universal solvent, it dissolves almost everything which comes in contact with it. Pure and safe water is hard to get nowadays as there is a rapid increase in water pollution.

Since water is equated with life, attention must be paid to the impurities that can be present in the water. Without the access of safe and pure drinking water mankind will head towards many serious health issues and life threatening diseases.

Common Impurities Found In Drinking Water

The most common impurities found in water are listed below. Some of the impurities are caused by humans as the result of their day to day activities, some are from factories and industries and some are caused by cattle, livestock, and other organisms.


Biological contamination of water is caused by the presence of living organisms like algae, bacteria, protozoa, pathogens, microbes, Viruses, Parasites and their eggs (cysts), etc. known collectively known as microorganisms and commonly called ‘germs’. The health effects of drinking water contaminated with germs may be severe, but easily curable with modern day medicine. These minute living organisms in water are the causes of diseases from dirty water like typhoid fever, dysentery, cholera, gastroenteritis, etc.

Microorganisms are the most deadly impurities present in water that makes water extremely unfit for drinking and other purposes. Living organisms like bacteria, protozoa and other viruses are very harmful for living beings as they can lead to many fatal diseases and disorders. These microorganisms cannot be removed easily from water. They can survive even if we boil water at high temperature.

Suspended particles:

A portion of the suspended particles like sand and mud have a tendency to contaminate the water and make water to be turbid. The vast majority of these particles settle down over the time but some may stay suspended and must be evacuated after they have been filtered.

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These are the solids which are insoluble like dust, fine sand, clay, rust, etc. They remain suspended in the water and cause muddy water or cloudiness in water. ‘Total Suspended Solids’ or ‘TSS’ is the technical term used to measure how much of dirt there is in the muddy water. ‘Turbidity’ is the term to describe the muddy water and a unit of measurement of cloudy water is based on the transmission of light through the muddy or cloudy water.

Chemical content:

The problem with chemicals in water is that they dissolve in water and cannot be removed by simple filtration. ‘Total Dissolved Solids’ or ‘TDS’ is the technical term used to give a measure of the amount of dissolved matter in the water and is usually expressed as ‘ppm’ which stands for ‘parts per million’ or as ‘milligrams per liter (mg/L). To remove dissolved chemicals in water, it has to be either distilled or purified by using an RO water purifier. Some of the most dangerous chemicals found in drinking water in India are listed with an explanation as to how it affects our health in our page for toxic poisonous chemicals in water.


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15 Solutions Of Water Pollution

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Water pollution is the contamination of water in water bodies such as rivers, oceans, lakes and swamps. This means that one or more substances have built up in water to the extent of causing problems to people, animals and plants.Water pollution is the contamination of water in water bodies such as rivers, oceans, lakes and swamps. This means that one or more substances have built up in water to the extent of causing problems to people, animals and plants.

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1. Do not dump in and around rivers. Dumping is the one of the major cause of water pollution.

2. Septic tank will eventually leak and human waste becomes exposed to ground water. So, clean and maintain septic systems properly.

3. Follow all water laws and regulations, these regulations and laws are in place for a reason breaking the rules put the water at risk.

4. If you are putting “normal” fertilizer, pesticides, and other chemicals on your lawn or in your gardens, you are contributing to the pollution problem. So try to avoid those types of pesticides use only natural fertilizer.

5. Many of the chemicals found in our food, household cleaners, personal care products, and medications are all being dumped back into the waterways. These chemicals are NOT adequately filtered through municipal water treatment facilities. So surely we must avoid those types of chemicals.

6. Less plastic and no litter because this type of plastic is easy for wildlife to swallow and eventually causes death. Plastic factories also deliver much of the pollution that is not bio-degradable. Up to 40 percent of all bottled waters are merely re-processed tap water.

7. Where storm water lands in ditches or culverts, a check dam or ditch check can be used to filter the runoff, preventing sediment pollution and trash from exiting the property.

8. As a way of reducing the pollution load to zero, there is a need for the more advanced engineered cleaning process. Some developed worlds have sewage treatment plants with extra systems for eliminating pathogens and nutrients. Other regions should emulate this strategy to reduce sewage pollutant loads to zero.

9. Agricultural production practices qualify as massive causal agents for water pollution. Green agricultural practice techniques like crop rotation, mulching, planting perennial crops, contour plowing, and installing silt fences can minimize the effects of silt deposition. It will give some good effect of preventing the water pollution.

10. The installation of pre-treatment facilities and adoption of quality waste treatment protocols in the industries can extensively help to eliminate the toxic contaminants from the discharge.

11. Environmental protection policies such as the Clean Water Acts work to ensure that anti-pollution laws are effected and apply to all significant waters including ground water.

12. Avoiding throwing of oils, paints, chemicals and medicines in sink drain or toilet can as well contribute to reducing the dangers of water pollution. Waste consumer products and utilities such as drugs, battery cells, and other chemical wastes can be disposed at designated disposal points where the relevant authorities can collect and dispose them effectively.

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13. Use water wisely. Do not keep the tap running when not in use. Also you can reduce the amount of water you use in washing and bathing. If we all do this, we can significantly prevent water shortages and reduce the amount of dirty water that needs treatment.

14. In many developed cities, waste or sewage treatment is very efficient, and designed to minimize pollution of water bodies.

15. Buy more environmentally safe cleaning liquids for use at home and other public places. They are less dangerous to the environment.

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Cholera is a waterborne disease and is diarrhoeal in nature. A person can get affected by Cholera by drinking water or eating food contaminated with the cholera bacterium. It can happen to both children and adults and some of the symptoms of cholera include vomiting, abdominal cramps, watery bowels, and fever.

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Diarrhoea is one of the most common waterborne diseases that mostly affect children under the age of 5. Some of the symptoms of diarrhea include dehydration, severe dizziness, loss of consciousness, pale skin and bloody stool, little or no urination.


It is another disease that gets transmitted by drinking contaminated water that carries ‘Salmonellae Typhi bacteria’. Some of the symptoms through which you can understand that you are being affected by Typhoid are prolonged fever, loss of appetite, headache, constipation, exhaustion, sleepiness, and nausea. It can also be transmitted by close contact with the infected person.


Amebiasis is a kind of parasitic infection in the intestine that is caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, or E. histolytica. The single-celled protozoan usually enters the human body when the person swallows cysts through food or water. Some of the symptoms of amebiasis are the loose stool, stomach pain, and abdominal cramping.


Also known as legionnaire’s disease, this particular type of illness is caused by the Legionellabacteria. Unlike previously-mentioned waterborne diseases which target the digestive system, this one chooses another venue to attack – the respiratory system.

Japanese Encephalitis:

Japanese encephalitis is a water related disease that is caused by the Culex Tritaeniorhynchus and Culex Vishnui type of mosquitoes. Therefore, Japanese encephalitis is majorly found in the agricultural regions of India. The Japanese encephalitis virus attacks children the most and in some cases this water related disease can lead to death. The symptoms of Japanese encephalitis include fever, vomiting, headaches and in acute cases, coma, seizures and finally death.

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Filariasis is a parasitic disease and affects people who live near unsanitary water bodies or sewages. Filariasis is spread by mosquitoes that breeds in fresh and stagnant water bodies and is the host of the filarial nematode worm. This worm affects humans and leads to elephantitis. Although Filariasis can be treated and prevented with oral medicines, lack of medicines in rural India leads to severe disfiguration in many cases.


What is dysentery, you may ask? It is probably one of the most common waterborne diseases around, having killed around 600,000 children who have not yet reached the age of five coming mostly from developing countries. The bacterial disease is caused by the microorganism called Shigella, and just like the cholera bacterium, this little dude attacks cells in the large intestine, resulting to abdominal cramps, anal pain, and bloody stool.


The bacterium, Clostridium botulinum, is the culprit behind botulism. Infection begins with fatigue, problems with eyesight, and slurred speech, something that water diseases are quite known for. Eventually, it progresses to weakness of the facial muscles, and this weakness spreads to the arms and legs. If not treated with antibiotics and/or an antitoxin, the poison of C. botulinum could lead to death as this little beast could even affect breathing and the production of saliva.

Vibrio Illness.

Strains of the Vibrio bacteria are usually found in saltwater, and can be carried by several marine animals like crabs, prawns, and shellfish. If you ingest it, this waterborne illness can manifest cholera-like symptoms. If it enters the body through an open wound, a nagging infection and skin ulcers may occur.

Toxin from the Vibrio bacteria can be lethal, and a visit to the doctor for the necessary antibiotics is highly recommended.


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Water scarcity in India

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Reason behind the water scarcity in India

The water scarcity is mostly man made due to excess population growth and mismanagement of water resources. Some of the major reasons for water scarcity are:

  • Inefficient use of water for agriculture. India is among the top growers of agricultural produce in the world and therefore the consumption of water for irrigation is amongst the highest. Traditional techniques of irrigation causes maximum water loss due to evaporation, drainage, percolation, water conveyance, and excess use of groundwater. As more areas come under traditional irrigation techniques, the stress for water available for other purposes will continue. The solution lies in extensive use of micro-irrigation techniques such as drip and sprinkler irrigation.

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  • Reduction in traditional water recharging areas. Rapid construction is ignoring traditional water bodies that have also acted as ground water recharging mechanism. We need to urgently revive traditional aquifers while implementing new ones.


  • Sewage and wastewater drainage into traditional water bodies. Government intervention at the source is urgently required if this problem is to be tackled.


  • Lack of on-time de-silting operations in large water bodies that can enhance water storage capacity during monsoon. It is surprising that the governments at state levels has not taken this up on priority as an annual practice. This act alone can significantly add to the water storage levels.


  • Lack of efficient water management and distribution of water between urban consumers, the agriculture sector and industry. The government needs to enhance its investment in technology and include all stakeholders at the planning level to ensure optimization of existing resources.


  • Fresh water deficit:

    Along with the strain on surface water, the country is also facing great stress with freshwater. Lack of strict state regulation on ground water development has caused a strain on the amount of freshwater available. Indifference from bureaucratic powers and constant neglect has caused the problem to intensify. In hand with the lack of government interference and continued industrial waste deposited into major rivers, most freshwater entering the bodies of water is defiled. The approximation of the untreated water entering the water sources such as rivers and lakes is 90 percent and only furthers the problem.

    Solutions to overcome water scarcity problems:

    • We are drawing more ground water than the amount of recharge through rains. Farm ponds and rainwater recharge is the only way to move forward. We are disrespecting the rain water by allowing the water flow into the sea. That is why we see frequent floods. Unless we decentralize and incorporate local storage of water by creating more ponds check dams we will keep seeing more droughts every year. After all source of water for the ground water is rain water.


    • A simple addition of a ‘water free’ male urinal in our homes can save well over 25,000 liters of water, per home per year. The traditional flush dispenses around six liters of water per flush. If all male members including boys of the house use the ‘water free urinal’ instead of pulling the traditional flush, the collective impact on the demand for water will reduce significantly. This must be made mandatory by law and followed up by education and awareness both at home and school.


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  • The amount of water that is wasted during dish washing at home is significant. We need to change our dish washing methods and minimize the habit of keeping the water running. A small step here can make a significant saving in water consumption.


Waste water treatment and recycling for non-drinking purposes. Several low cost technologies are available that can be implemented in group housing areas.

Very often, we see water leaking in our homes, in public areas and colonies. A small steady water leak can cause a loss of 226,800 liters of water per year! Unless we are aware and conscious of water wastage we will not be able to avail the basic quantity of water that we need to carry on with our normal lives.


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10 Benefits of 7 Day Water Fasting[2018]

Sigma aquaguard is the best aquaguard service center in chennai. Water fast is when a person does not eat and drinks nothing other than water.

There is no set time that water fasting should last for, but medical advice generally suggests anywhere from 24 hours to 3 days as the maximum time to go without food.

Benefits of water fast

Throughout history, people have undertaken fasts for spiritual or religious reasons. But, water fasting is now popular in the natural health and wellness movements, often alongside meditation.

The Zero Calorie Diet:

The fast is intense and grueling due to the emotional challenges involved. Still, it manages to correct minor disruptions in the body as it helps purify the system. When a person takes only water, he or she is consuming ‘zero’ calories. In a body loaded with numerous toxins, both internal and external, the tissues struggle to eliminate the wastes. Our food habits further add excessive calories, thereby slowing down metabolism. Taking virtually no calories for 2 to 7 days was found to revive our tissues and system functions.

Who do fast?

Water fasts are advised for those who can handle several days of intense calorie deprivation. Individuals who have taken a 2-day fast earlier would find it easier to take a 4-day or 7-day fast. Hence, beginners can start with a 2-day water fast. Patients with medical issues require medical consultation before embarking on this plan.

Obese people trying to lose weight can take the fast and observe immediate results. Although, it is necessary to note that the lost pounds might return once the calories come back into your diet. Underweight people might find the fast too grueling, and can experience more fatigue compared to others. Some might face complications during the fast, and they need to stop it immediately.

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What Kind of Water on the Fast?

Since water is the only thing we consumed during the fast, it was important to make sure we had high quality water. We have a whole house filter and a 14-stage under the sink filter, so we were fine with drinking our tap water. Some people prefer to use distilled water while fasting.

Electrolyte depletion is one of the bigger risks of fasting so we added some high quality Himalayan salt to a couple of glasses of our water each day. This is supposed to help with the headaches and tiredness.

The amount of water is also important during a fast. Drinking too much water can cause problems, as can not drinking enough. Sources vary on the exact amount but it ranges between 2-4 quarts a day. I just drank when thirsty and added a pinch of salt to a couple glasses a day.

Benefits of 7 Day Water Fasting:

  1. Having no calories burns approximately 1 pound of fat per day, making it the fastest weight loss method.
  2. Increases insulin sensitivity as there is less fluctuation in blood sugar levels.
  3. Improves body repair, recovery and healing from decreased inflammation.
  4. Lowers stress levels, decreases blood pressure and rejuvenates the body.
  5. Increases immunity due to better cell resistance.
  6. Enables reduction in cancer cell proliferation.
  7. Slows down aging and cognitive decline.
  8. Lowers the risk of heart disease.
  9. Solves digestive problems such as gastritis, irritable bowels, constipation, diarrhea, gas, dyspepsia, and loss of appetite.
  10. Water fasting is also an opportunity for emotional and spiritual introspection. People find they have better control over their thoughts and diet, after they are done with this fast.

Water Fasting Side Effects:

  • Without calories or other nutrients from food, you’ll likely feel tired and lethargic on the water fast.
  • You may also feel dizzy and lightheaded and experience headaches, low blood pressure and abnormal heart rhythms, according to the American Cancer Society.
  • The organization also notes that these effects can make driving or operating heavy machinery more dangerous than usual and that fasting can even increase the risk of an attack in people who suffer from gout.
  • In addition, the water fast might make gallstone symptoms worse.
  • If your water fast lasts for days or longer, the risks grow dramatically. You may compromise your immune system and organ function, possibly damaging the kidneys and liver.
  • If you are continuing your metabolism will also slow as your body tries to conserve energy, so you’ll start burning fewer calories than you did in your solid-food days. Once you start eating normally again, the pounds will pile back on quickly and you may even wind up weighing more than you did when you started your fast.


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