Farming Business Ideas in India

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Sheep Farming

Sheep are raised mainly for their wool, milk, skins and manure making Additionally, sheep meat is very tasty, healthy and popular to all types of people throughout the world. Mostly sheep farming business is a great source of income and for eradicating poverty from the barren, desert, semi-arid and mountainous areas.

Dairy Farming

Farming Business in India ranks first with the average milk production. In starting a dairy agricultural business, crafting a proper business plan, creating cropping and feeding program, waste management planning, financial planning and marketing planning is important.

It is suitable to start as a small-scale and after getting confidence in the business, develop little by little. The major products are milk, meat, and leather.

Poultry Farming

Commercial poultry farming in India has created and is still creating a commercial small business opportunity for the entrepreneurs. All types of poultry products have good demand in the market inside India. Highly productive local and foreign breeds are also available in the market for commercially successful poultry farming. Three major types of poultry species are broiler (for meat production), cockerels (for meat production) and layers (foregg production).

Fish Farming

Fish farming is cost-effective and the production is widely diversified. You can start your own home based small scale fish farming with small capital investment or you can start a large-scale commercial fish farming.

According to your location, available water bodies, environment, water type, and investment capacity, you will need to select the right species for fish farming.

Goat Farming

Goat farming is a confirmed highly commercial livestock farming business idea so, it is very necessary to make a proper goat farming business plan before starting this business. High income within a very short time, little investment, huge global claim are the main reasons for distribution this business rapidly throughout the world.

If you want to start this business and if you have the ability to make a plan perfectly then you will defiantly be able to achieve the highest profit from goat farming business.

Ostrich Farming

Ostrich meat is the healthiest substitute to our traditional meat. It has lower fat, calories, and cholesterol than beef, chicken, and pork. Ostriches allow the farmer to make higher and quicker returns on investment. Ostrich eggs, meat, hide (leather) and feathers are very highly priced and command high prices on the local and international markets.

Pearl Farming

The production of a cultivated pearl is a complex process that requires a thriving marine network, important knowledge and skill, and several years of patience. You can initiate freshwater pearl culture as small scale basis. Freshwater pearl farming is a commercially commercial venture to initiate with small establish money.

Pig Farming

Marketable pig farming in India is one of the most cost-effective livestock farming business. Pigs grow faster than any other animals. They have higher feed translation effectiveness. That means they have a great feed to meat converting ratio. The ratio of sum consumable meat and total body weight is higher in pigs.

Rabbit Farming

The rabbit can be a great source of food production. There is a great opportunity for rabbit farming, and commercial manufacture is highly profitable and can be a great source of income and service.

Rabbits are the very small sized animal and it requires the reasonably small area for rabbit farming.

Worm Farming

Industrially difficult commercial worm farming is a highly profitable venture to start with moderate capital investment. Earthworm manufacture is an enterprise that could be suitable for many small landowners.

Emu Farming

Emu farming is gaining popularity gradually in India. Emu meat is very healthy and tasty. It is lower in fat and cholesterol and higher in protein and energy. Emu products like eggs, meat, skin, oil and features have a high value in the market. Emus take less food and convert them to various types of valuable products. They can even survive by eating cost saving foods.

Emu farming business is very profitable and it can be a great source of income and employment for the unemployed people of India. You can also apply bank loan for setting up commercial emu farming in India.

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Home Garden Ideas

What are some great garden ideas?

We are best Water Purifier Service in Chennai One and all has their own idea about what constitutes a dream garden.  First you should always keep the conditions of the land in mind, as well as your own personal preferences and taste. insert a ‘feel-good’ factor into your garden design to help it feel welcoming to equally you and your guests—and to impress the neighbors! For those blessed with green fingers, you can let off steam and get your creative juices flowing by implementing your own plan.

Browse through our image archives to find your perfect garden design ideas, small garden ideas & landscaping design ideas.

How do I effectively plan a garden? 

Aim of effectively plan your garden, you should first gather some ideas. It’s always desirable to consult an expert, especially if you intend to make major changes. finally, they know all about weather-resistant materials and  low-maintenance plants. For those who have the comfort of a large outdoor space, a full advantage can be taken to decorate the comfortable outdoor space. Don’t forget that the colour of your flowering plants can be used as a beautification too!. Alternatively, if you’re more the traditional—albeit quirky-  type, try adding a friendly gnome or bird bath for that special something!

What are some patio, terrace & decking ideas? 

Seeing as most gardens branch out from a patio, deck or terrace, the design of these spaces should go hand-in-hand with your garden. In terms of flooring, there are a variety of options, materials and designs available. While timber has a warm and traditional feel, stone exudes a cool elegance (and is also very easy to clean and maintain). Ultimately, what you choose is a matter of taste, and dependent on the conditions of your environment.

How much will a garden renovation cost?

The amount you’ll need to fork out for that dream garden depends on exactly how much work you’re prepared to put in yourself. Daunting though that price may sound, it’s reassuring to look at a breakdown of costs for the component projects, allowing you to priorities if you’re on a budget. There’s no set cost for renovation. It mainly depends on the size and scope of the project, the type of materials used – such as plants and paving.

Raised vegetable beds: If you’re dead set on eco-conscious self-sufficiency, you’re going to need some raised beds! Providing the ground is already flat, a 4m x 1.5m bed is a relatively straightforward addition and will set you back somewhere between Rs.500

What are the essentials that I need for my garden?

No garden, however small, would be complete without a few key features. First and foremost, we’re talking a sturdy and sleek fence to keep out those interfering eyes and frame your space with style. Next up, how could anyone in their right mind forgo a shed?

We all know that every self-respecting gardener needs at least a few power gadgets lying around for when some green-fingered inspiration strikes! Another essential for our variable climate is a gazebo or shelter of some description. This ensures that no garden party can be cleaned out by the rain. And last, but by no means least, we’re talking barbecues.

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Watch Or Timepiece

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History Of Watch
Watch is important in our human life cycle. Time is most important in our life watch timer used in our life is working time, school or college time any one they are using in time calculation The history of watches began in 16th century Europe, where watches evolved from portable spring-driven clocks, which first appeared in the 15th century. The watch which developed from the 16th century to the mid 20th century was a mechanical device, powered by winding a mainspring which turned gears and then moved the hands, and kept time with a rotating balance wheel. The invention of the quartz watch in the 1960’s, which ran on electricity and kept time with a vibrating quartz crystal, proved a radical departure for the industry. During the 1980’s quartz watches took over the market from mechanical watches, an event referred to as the “quartz crisis”.

Although mechanical watches still sell at the high end of the market, the vast majority of watches now have quartz movements.
History of time keeping devices is filled with many examples of popular designs that enabled people to measure time, but watches managed to transform our civilization on much larger scale. Before we were introduced to the clocks that were attached to pocket chains or strapped to our wrists, all mechanical clocks were big static table or wall clocks that were slow to manufacture, expensive, and most importantly very inaccurate. Arrival of small watches that can be carried whenever was adopted by population instantly, which fueled countless innovators, engineers, scientists, manufactures and fashion designers to embrace watches and ensure their continuous evolution and growth. Such popularity drove innovations, fueled minds of inventors, and enabled creation of small, reliable, easy to produce and cheap time keeping devices that truly managed form the basis of the modern civilization in which we live today.

Portable Clocks
First portable clocks were introduced in the early years of mechanical clock production in Europe. During 16th century engineers and manufacturers finally gained the ability to created devices on such small scale that people could carry it with them, but those initial models were way to big and heavy for pocket and wrist. Instead, first portable watches were worn on a neck pendant. Other disadvantages were very bad accuracy (even though they had only hour hand, they could lose several hours during one day), noise, durability and bad protection from outside influences (hour hand was not protected by glass, but only with hinged brass cover).

19th century and the rise of railroad networks brought the need of global standardization of time and expansion of clocks, especially after few train accidents that could have been avoided if train personnel had synchronized clocks that were accurate. Initiative to standardize train time in United States finally came in 1893, which was responsible for large expansion of precise clocks all around the world. But, fashion change struck again during the World War I when pocket watches gained competition from small, extremely portable, and easy to use wrist watches. With the improved technologies of automatic winding, and small designs, wrist watches very quickly became the most popular type of portable clocks on the world. Decades on innovations enabled us to start using electronic watches of many designs, until late 1990’s when era of mobile phones started.

Balance Spring
The balance spring made the balance wheel a harmonic oscillator, with a natural ‘beat’ resistant to disturbances. A great leap forward in accuracy occurred in 1657 with the addition of the balance spring to the balance wheel, Prior to this, the only force limiting the back and forth motion of the balance wheel under the force of the escapement was the wheel’s inertia. This caused the wheel’s period to be very sensitive to the force of the mainspring. This increased watches’ accuracy enormously, reducing error from perhaps several hours per day[12] to perhaps 10 minutes per day, resulting in the addition of the minute hand to the face from around 1680 in Britain and 1700 in France.[13] The increased accuracy of the balance wheel focused attention on errors caused by other parts of the movement, igniting a two century wave of watchmaking innovation

The first thing to be improved was the escapement. The verge escapement was replaced in quality watches by the cylinder escapement, The advantage of these escapements was that they only gave the balance wheel a short push in the middle of its swing, leaving it ‘detached’ from the escapement to swing back and forth undisturbed during most of its cycle.


The first timepieces to be worn, made in the 16th century beginning in the German cities of Nuremberg and Augsburg, were transitional in size between clocks and watches. Portable timepieces were made possible by the invention of the mainspring in the early 15th century. Nuremberg clock maker Peter Henlein (or Henle or Hele) (1485-1542) is often credited as the inventor of the watch. He was one of the first German craftsmen who made “clock-watches”, ornamental timepieces worn as pendants, which were the first timepieces to be worn on the body. His fame is based on a passage by Johann Cochläus in 1511.

 These ‘clock-watches’ were fastened to clothing or worn on a chain around the neck. They were heavy drum-shaped cylindrical brass boxes several inches in diameter, engraved and ornamented. They had only an hour hand. The face was not covered with glass, but usually had a hinged brass cover, often decoratively pierced with grillwork so the time could be read without opening. The movement was made of iron or steel and held together with tapered pins and wedges, until screws began to be used after 1550. Many of the movements included striking or alarm mechanisms. They usually had to be wound twice a day. The shape later evolved into a rounded form; these were later called Nuremberg eggs. Still later in the century there was a trend for unusually-shaped watches, and clock-watches shaped like books, animals, fruit, stars, flowers, insects, crosses, and even skulls (Death’s head watches) were made.
These early clock-watches were not worn to tell the time. The accuracy of their verge and foliot movements was so poor, with errors of perhaps several hours per day, that they were practically useless. They were made as jewelry and novelties for the nobility, valued for their fine ornamentation, unusual shape, or intriguing mechanism, and accurate timekeeping was of very minor importance.

Electric watch
Now we are using also this one.The first generation of electric-powered watches came out during the 1950’s. These kept time with a balance wheel powered by a solenoid, or in a few advanced watches that foreshadowed the quartz watch, by a steel tuning fork vibrating at 360 Hz, powered by a solenoid driven by a transistor oscillator circuit. The hands were still moved mechanically by a wheel train. In mechanical watches the self winding mechanism, The jewel craze caused ‘jewel inflation’ and watches with up to 100 jewels were produced.

Smart Watch
A smartwatch is a computer worn on the wrist, a wireless digital device that may have the capabilities of a cellphone, portable music player, or a personal digital assistant. By the early 2010’s some had the general capabilities of a smartphone, having a processor with a mobile operating system capable of running a variety of mobile apps.

The first smart watch was the Linux Watch, developed in 1998 by Steve Mann which he presented February 7, 2000. Seiko launched the Ruputer in Japan- it was a wristwatch computer and it had a 3.6 MHz processor. In 1999, Samsung launched the worlds first watch phone. It was named the SPH-WP10. It had a built in speaker and mic, a protruding antenna and a monochrome LCD screen and 90 minutes of talk time. IBM made a prototype of a wristwatch that was running Linux. The first version had 6 hours battery life and it got extended to 12 in its more advanced version. This device got better when IBM added a accelerometer, a vibrating mechanism and a fingerprint sensor. It displayed calendar software, Bluetooth, 8 MB RAM and 16 MB of flash memory. It was criticized for its weight of 108 grams and was discontinued in 2005.
In early 2004, Microsoft released the SPOT smart watch. The company demonstrated it working with coffee makers, weather stations and clocks with SPOT tech. The smart watch had information like weather, news, stocks, and sport scores transmitted through FM waves. You had to buy a subscription that cost from $39 to $59. Sony Ericsson launched the Sony Ericsson LiveView, a wearable watch device which is a external BT display for a Android Smartphone. Pebble is an innovative smart watch that raised the most money on Kickstarter reaching 10.3 million dollars between April 12 and May 18. This watch had a 32 millimeter 144×168 pixel black and white memory LCD manufactured by Sharp with a backlight, a vibrating motor, a magnetometer, an ambient light sensor, and a three axis accelerometer. It can communicate with a Android or iOS device using both BT 2.1 and BT 4.0 using Stonestreet One’s Bluetopia+MFI software stack. As of July 2013 companies that were making smartwatches or were involved in smartwatch developments are: Acer, Apple, BlackBerry, Foxconn, Google, LG, Microsoft, Qualcomm, Samsung, Sony, VESAG and Toshiba. Some notable ones from this list are HP, HTC, Lenovo and Nokia. Many smartwatches were released at CES 2014.

The model featured a curved AMOLED display and a built in 3G modem. On September 9, 2014, Apple Inc. announced its first smartwatch named the Apple Watch and released early 2015. Microsoft released Microsoft Band, a smart fitness tracker and their first watch since SPOT in early 2004. Top watches at CES 2017 were the Garmin Fenix 5 and the Casio WSD F20. Apple Watch series 3 had built in LTE allowing phone calls and messaging and data without a nearby phoane connection. During a September 2018 keynote, Apple introduced a Apple Watch Series 4. It had a larger display and a EKG feature to detect abnormal heart function. Qualcomm released their Snapdragon 3100 chip the same month. basic watch functions as well as slightly more advanced functions such as step tracking.

Watch in Very important in our life. different types and different models of watch using. watch is one of the marketing and advertisement product. 24 hours are planing in our life working schedule.

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10 Tips To Host An Event

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We’ve now reached the fourth stage of the event management cycle – hosting the event:

  1. Planning the event: From idea to action plan.
  2. Organising the event: From action plan to execution.
  3. Promoting the event: Spreading the word and selling tickets.
  4. Hosting the event: Making sure things run smoothly on the day.
  5. After the event: Thank yous and follow ups.

By now, you know where to find inspiration for an event, how to put an event together and how to get the word out. It’s time to look at how to host an event on the day.

Hosting your event

This is the moment you’ve been building up to for weeks or even months. You have the perfect team, a great event agenda, and—judging by the ticket sales—lots of guests showing up.

It’s time to sit back and relax!

Oops, no. You’ll have time for that later. Today, you’ve got to step it up one last time and make sure that the day of the event lives up to the hype. After all, you want the event to do justice to all of that planning and organising.

Let’s look at how to host the event now that the day has arrived.

10 things you can do right now

Here are the 10 steps you can take to ensure you host the event successfully.

1. Prep the venue

Before anyone shows up, you’ll want to have your venue set up and get ready to welcome the guests. Ideally, you shouldn’t have to run around getting the last things in place in the middle of the event.

Arrive early with your team and get the venue ready. Here’s a non-exhaustive list:

  • Place the furniture (registration tables, sitting arrangements, and so on)
  • Decorate the venue
  • Check that all IT, audio, and video equipment is functioning
  • Prepare the stage and any props your speakers or performers might need
  • Make sure the external caterers (if any) have arrived and started their preparations
  • Ensure that any refreshments—like welcome drinks—are in place
  • Set up the banners and other materials from your sponsors
  • Double-check your safety & security arrangements (first aid kits are in place, fire escapes aren’t blocked, etc.)

If you have a team of volunteers helping you out, make sure they’re briefed on their assigned duties and know the layout of the place.

Do a final walk through the venue shortly before the first guests or performers are due to arrive to catch anything you might have missed.

2. Accommodate your performers / speakers

If your event relies on any performers or speakers, make sure you have people taking care of welcoming them and attending to their needs. You don’t want them hungry, thirsty, or confused about their roles in the event.

In many cases, you’ll get a prep list from these performers with “must have” equipment, props, and other requirements. Go through the list and check that you have everything they might need.

If you haven’t met then in person before, make sure to introduce yourself. You want to show your appreciation and make yourself approachable in case they have any questions or feedback during the event.

3. Take care of guest registration

You should have a team of people manning the doors to take care of things like registering new arrivals, scanning their tickets, serving welcome drinks, handing out name tags, and so on.

Check that your barcode or QR scanners are set up properly. If you’re using an event platform that offers a free ticket scanning app (like Billetto), make sure that the relevant members of your team have the app installed in advance. It’s a good idea to do a few test scans and check that everything is working as intended.

If you’ve printed out a guest list and are crossing people off by hand, keep track of how many have showed up and adjust your staffing accordingly.

4. Help guests navigate

Have you ever arrived to an event and ended up roaming around the building to look for the entrance? Then you know just how frustrating that is. Don’t ever put your guests in the same situation. This is your chance to make a good first impression instead of starting off on the wrong foot.

Make sure there are sufficient signs around the venue and that the paths are clearly marked. If your event has reserved seating, check that every row and seat are clearly marked and easy to read. Here are the typical items that require clear signage:

  • Main entrance(s)
  • Wardrobe
  • Primary event location (whether it’s the conference room, exhibition hall, or the dance floor)
  • Rooms for workshops and breakaway sessions
  • Food & beverage facilities
  • Toilets
  • Designated smoking areas (if any)
  • Emergency exits
  • Charging stations for people’s smartphones, etc.

It’s best to have at least a few volunteers be exclusively responsible for helping guests navigate your venue. Make sure they are easily identifiable via unique uniform, special badges, and so on.

5. Encourage participation

You didn’t work so hard on getting everyone here only to have your guests become bored and quickly lose interest. The last thing you want is them being glued to their phones or checking their watches.

If it’s a conference or speaker-focused even, the program should be built around audience participation. Your speakers might consider a Q&A session at the end of their speech and maybe incorporate interactive quizzes into their presentations.

If it’s a casual event, try to arrange for an ice-breaker game or a friendly competition among your guests. Prepare some areas with activities they can engage in on their own time while walking around the venue.

Don’t forget your virtual participants, either. You can consider live streaming your event on Facebook or even go high-tech and jump on the virtual reality bandwagon and let people “attend” your event from a remote location.

6. Inspire social media shares

Your social media promotion doesn’t stop on the day. In fact, now is the perfect chance to create some buzz about your in-progress event.

Get people to use your event hashtag when posting about it on their social media channels or sharing photos and videos from the event. One way to do that is to ask people to tweet questions at the current speaker with a hashtag attached so you can quickly find and sort through them.

Another idea is to have a photobooth or another designated photo location with your event name and hashtag highly visible. Whenever people take and share pictures of themselves, they’ll automatically be promoting your event to their followers.

This will also help you crowdsource great visual material for marketing your future events.

7. Capture the highlights

To your guests, the simple memory of a fun event may be more than enough. As the organiser, you want to make sure you have a record of how the day went.

Your best move is to hire a photographer and/or videographer to capture the event highlights. Not only is this a fantastic source of future marketing material, but you’ll also be able to share something tangible with guests and other participants.

The speakers will surely love having a recording of their talk and your live band won’t pass up a video of themselves performing. Your team and volunteers may appreciate reliving a successful event via photos and videos. After all, they’re too busy during the event to truly feel the vibe.

Besides, seeing someone walking around with a camera can get people excited. It may just be another way to encourage guest participation as they pose for photos.

If you’re hosting a high profile event, you may even consider inviting journalists to cover it and get the word out.

8. Gather ongoing feedback

Use this opportunity to ask for feedback from both your performers and the guests.

While you can get a lot of information by sending out a post-event survey (we’ll cover that in the next chapter), you really won’t have a better chance to hear what people really think about the event. The event is unfolding and people’s feelings about it are fresh in their minds. Don’t wait for these impressions to fade.

The way you do this will depend on how formal your event is and your needs. For instance, you can consider formalising this process and handing out a printed feedback form that guests can fill out in exchange for a perk (free drink, goodie bag, and so on).

Alternatively, you may opt for socialising with your guests and picking up their thoughts while making small talk. Getting people’s input first hand will let you understand not only their rational arguments but their true emotions.

Ask your performers and speakers about how you can do better and what they’d change about the setup. You may not be able to accommodate their needs this time, but you’ll be better prepared for your next event.

9. Keep track of time

Most events will involve at least a few time-sensitive activities and deadlines. Your speakers probably have an allotted time slot. Your DJ might need to take the stage at exactly 11PM. Food and drinks should be served at a certain time. And so on.

On top of that, many venues will have a hard deadline for when your event should wrap up. You definitely don’t want to be rushing through the later parts of your agenda in order to hit this curfew.

Keep track of time and make sure everyone sticks to the programme. Gently remind the speakers how much time they have left to complete their presentations. Check with the ballet dancers to confirm they’re all ready for their big entrance. Help usher the guests to an appropriate room shortly before the next performance is due to take place.

Making things run on time without disrupting the flow of the day might be tricky, so it’s best to have a good plan for how to communicate the deadlines and timing to all participants.

10. Be the last to leave

Once it’s all over, it’s on you to close down and tie up any outstanding tasks.

Say goodbye to and see off the remaining guests.

Make certain that your speakers and performers have no grievances and receive all the attention they need to wrap up (help with equipment, transportation, etc.).

Work with your crew to clean up and dismantle any physical equipment, sponsorship banners, signage, etc. Unless your contract specifies otherwise, you should be leaving your venue in the same condition it was in when you first arrived.

Settle any practical and financial issues with the venue representatives, catering, and any other vendors you may have hired.

Take stock of any items your guests and other participants may have accidentally left behind, as well as any missing equipment and props you might need to find or replace.

Once everything is in order, ensure to reward your team and volunteers for a job well done. Maybe consider a small celebration to mark the successfully completed event. Make arrangements for everyone to get home.

Guess what? You did it! All that planning, administration, and stressful days of last-minute preparations have resulted in a memorable event. Pat yourself on the back.

Now you can finally slow down and catch your breath. The only thing left to do is follow up with everyone involved to leave things on a high note. But that’s a topic for our last chapter.


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Agriculture in India

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Agriculture, with its allied sectors, is unquestionably the largest livelihood provider in India, more so in the vast rural areas. It also contributes a significant figure to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Sustainable agriculture, in terms of food security, rural employment, and environmentally sustainable technologies such as soil conservation, sustainable natural resource management and biodiversity protection, are essential for holistic rural development. Indian agriculture and allied activities have witnessed a green revolution, a white revolution, a yellow revolution and a blue revolution.

This section provides the information on agriculture produces; machineries, research etc. Detailed information on the government policies, schemes, agriculture loans, market prices, animal husbandry, fisheries, horticulture, loans & credit, sericulture etc. is also available.

Types of Agriculture in India

India’s agriculture is composed of many crops, with the foremost food staples being rice and wheat. Indian farmers also grow pulses, potatoes, sugarcane, oilseeds, and such non-food items as cotton, tea, coffee, rubber, and jute (a glossy fiber used to make burlap and twine). India is a fisheries giant as well. A total catch of about 3 million metric tons annually ranks India among the world’s top 10 fishing nations.

Despite the overwhelming size of the agricultural sector, however, yields per hectare of crops in India are generally low compared to international standards. Improper water management is another problem affecting India’s agriculture. At a time of increasing water shortages and environmental crises, for example, the rice crop in India is allocated disproportionately high amounts of water. One result of the inefficient use of water is that water tables in regions of rice cultivation, such as Punjab, are on the rise, while soil fertility is on the decline. Aggravating the agricultural situation is an ongoing Asian drought and inclement weather. Although during 2000-01 a monsoon with average rainfall had been expected, prospects of agricultural production during that period were not considered bright.

Despite the fact that agriculture accounts for as much as a quarter of the Indian economy and employs an estimated 60 percent of the labor force, it is considered highly inefficient, wasteful, and incapable of solving the hunger and malnutrition problems. It is estimated that as much as one-fifth of the total agricultural output is lost due to inefficiencies in harvesting, transport, and storage of government-subsidized crops.

Presently, Indian Agriculture is witnessing a phase of diversification. During recent years, much awareness has been generated on shifting to high-yielding varieties (HYV) of crops from conventional crops.

The competitive advantages that Indian agriculture can surely boost of are:

  • Favorable Agro-climatic Zones
  • Huge Irrigated lands
  • Enough supply of Skilled, educated, technical and scientific workforce suitable for this field.

Agriculture Problems


Seed is a critical and basic input for attaining higher crop yields and sustained growth in agricultural production. Distribution of assured quality seed is as critical as the production of such seeds. Unfortunately, good quality seeds are out of reach of the majority of farmers, especially small and marginal farmers mainly because of exorbitant prices of better seeds

In order to solve this problem, the Government of India established the National Seeds Corporation (NSC) in 1963 and the State Farmers Corporation of India (SFCI) in 1969. High Yielding Variety Programme (HYVP) was launched in 1966-67 as a major thrust plan to increase the production of food grains in the country.

The Indian seed industry had exhibited impressive growth in the past and is expected to provide further potential for growth in agricultural production: The role of seed industry is not only to produce adequate quantity of quality seeds.

The policy statements are designed towards making available to the Indian farmer, adequate quantities of seed of superior quality at the appropriate time and place and at an affordable price so as to meet the country’s food and nutritional security goals.

Indian seeds programme largely adheres to limited generation system for seed multiplication. The system recognises three kinds of generation, namely breeder, foundation and certified seeds. Breeder seed is the basic seed and first stage in seed production.

2.Agricultural Marketing:

In most of small villages, the farmers sell their produce to the money lender from whom they usually borrow money. Such a situation arises due to the inability of the poor farmers to wait for long after harvesting their crops.

In the absence of an organised marketing structure, private traders and middlemen dominate the marketing and trading of agricultural produce. The remuneration of the services provided by the middlemen increases the load on the consumer, although the producer does not derive similar benefit.

In order to save the farmer from the clutches of the money lenders and the middle men, the government has come out with regulated markets. These markets generally introduce a system of competitive buying, help in eradicating malpractices, ensure the use of standardised weights and measures and evolve suitable machinery for settlement of disputes thereby ensuring that the pro­ducers are not subjected to exploitation and receive remunerative prices.


Although India is the second largest irrigated country of the world after China, only one-third of the cropped area is under irrigation. Irrigation is the most important agricultural input in a tropical monsoon country like India where rainfall is uncertain, unreliable and erratic India cannot achieve sustained progress in agriculture unless and until more than half of the cropped area is brought under assured irrigation.

However, care must be taken to safeguard against ill effects of over irrigation especially in areas irrigated by canals. Large tracts in Punjab and Haryana have been rendered useless (areas affected by salinity, alkalinity and water-logging), due to faulty irrigation. In the Indira Gandhi Canal command area also intensive irrigation has led to sharp rise in sub-soil water level, leading to water-logging, soil salinity and alkalinity.

  1. Lack of mechanisation:

In spite of the large scale mechanisation of agriculture in some parts of the country, most of the agricultural operations in larger parts are carried on by human hand using simple and conventional tools and implements like wooden plough, sickle, etc.

There is urgent need to mechanise the agricultural operations so that wastage of labour force is avoided and farming is made convenient and efficient. Agricultural implements and machinery are a crucial input for efficient and timely agricultural operations, facilitating multiple cropping and thereby increasing production.

Some progress has been made for mechanising agriculture in India after Independence. Need for mechanisation was specially felt with the advent of Green Revolution in 1960s. Strategies and programmes have been directed towards replacement of traditional and inefficient implements by improved ones, enabling the farmer to own tractors, power tillers, harvesters and other machines.

Strenuous efforts are being made to encourage the farmers to adopt technically advanced agricultural equipments in order to carry farm operations timely and precisely and to economise the agricultural production process

  1. Soil erosion:

Large tracts of fertile land suffer from soil erosion by wind and water. This area must be properly treated and restored to its original fertility.

Agriculture vs Horticulture

Although horticulture is generally classified as a subdivision of agriculture which deals with plant gardening, it is actually different from agriculture. It is easy to relate the two because some of the techniques employed are used interchangeably in both sciences, for instance in the cultivation of crops which is an agricultural process, many horticulture methods are employed. Horticulture is a complete science of its own as well as a full industry.

Horticulture is defined in the strict sense as the science that employs special techniques and methods to cultivate plants, including methods used to properly condition the soil for seed planting or planting tubers. The domain of horticulture includes cultivation, plant propagation, breeding of plants, production of crops, plant physiology as well as biochemistry and genetic engineering. The plants looked at are mainly vegetables, trees, flowers, turf, shrubs, fruits and nuts. Horticulturalists carry out extensive research in their domain in order to get better quality crop yields, improve their nutritional value to humans, make crops pest and disease resistant and adjust to environmental stresses. The most notable difference from agriculture is that horticulture deals with small scale gardening and usually in enclosed gardens although this is not a necessity while agriculture is done on large scale with extensive crop cultivation.

Agriculture is the science of growing food crops and rearing animals for farming. It involves the whole web of processes employed in the redirection of the natural flow of the food chain and the rechanneling of energy. The natural food web starts with the sun providing sunlight to plants which is then converted to sugars which are processed into plant food in a process called photosynthesis. Herbivores animals will eat plants as their food and the carnivores animals will eat the herbivores for food. Dead animals and plants will be decomposed by bacteria and return to the soil as plant nutrients and the whole chain repeats afresh. Agriculture actually rearranges this web so that plants are protected for human consumption although plants can be grown specifically for animal (herbivores) consumption like cattle, which is in turn reared for human consumption. Agriculture can be divided into two categories, which are conventional and sustainable agriculture. Conventional agriculture deals with modifying some environmental factors like trees, soil tilling, and irrigation and all activities that favor single crop growing especially for crops like wheat, rice and corn. Sustainable agriculture is where ecological principles are employed in the farming. It is also known as agro-ecology. It aims at sustainable farming practices. It involves planting of a variety of crops together so the farming garden will never be bare at any time


  1. Horticulture strictly involves plant cultivation only while agriculture deals with cultivation of crops as well as animal farming.
  2. Horticulture may include plants that are not for human consumption while agriculture mainly focuses on crops for human consumption.
  3. Horticulture is done on smaller, enclosed plots while agriculture is done on extensive pieces of land on large scale.


Like every other sector, the agricultural sector has also evolved over the centuries and its development has brought about certain positive and negative repercussions to the society. Please imporved over Agriculture devlopment.

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5 Tips to Remove Headache

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Headaches are a common condition that many people deal with on a daily basis.

Head ache

Ranging from uncomfortable to downright unbearable, they can disrupt your day-to-day life.
Several types of headaches exist, with tension headaches being the most common. Cluster headaches are painful and happen in groups or “clusters,” while migraines are a moderate-to-severe type of headache.

Although many medications are targeted at relieving headache symptoms, a number of effective, natural treatments also exist

1. Try a Cold Pack:

If you have a migraine, place a cold pack on your forehead. Ice cubes wrapped in a towel, a bag of frozen peas, or even a cold shower may lessen the pain. Keep the compress on your head for 15 minutes, then take a break for 15 minutes.

2. Ginger, The All-Rounder

Touted as an elixir for headaches, ginger is a home remedy for instant relief. It helps reduce inflammation of the blood vessels in the head, hence easing the pain. And since it stimulates digestion, it also helps quell the nausea which occurs during migraines.

Wondering how to use this miracle ingredient as a home remedy for headache? Steep ginger root for tea, or mix equal parts of ginger juice and lemon juice and drink up. You can consume this once or twice a day. You can also apply a paste of ginger powder and 2 tablespoons water on your forehead for a few minutes to provide quicker relief

3.Drink Water:

Inadequate hydration may lead you to develop a headache.
In fact, studies have demonstrated that chronic dehydration is a common cause of tension headaches and migraines

(1).Thankfully, drinking water has been shown to relieve headache symptoms in most dehydrated individuals within 30 minutes to three hours

(2).What’s more, being dehydrated can impair concentration and cause irritability, making your symptoms seem even worse.

(3).To help avoid dehydration headaches, focus on drinking enough water throughout the day and eating water-rich foods.

4. Dim the Lights:

head ache

Bright or flickering light, even from your computer screen, can cause migraine headaches. If you’re prone to them, cover your windows with blackout curtains during the day. Wear sunglasses outdoors. You might also add anti-glare screens to your computer and use daylight-spectrum fluorescent bulbs in your light fixtures.


For temporary relief, try rubbing your temples or getting a neck, back, head, or shoulder massage.

In a small study, people with migraines who had six weekly massage sessions had less frequent migraines and better sleep during the massage weeks and the three following weeks than a control group.


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Acid rain, or acid deposition, is a broad term that includes any form of precipitation with acidic components, such as sulfuric or nitric acid that fall to the ground from the atmosphere in wet or dry forms.  This can include rain, snow, fog, hail or even dust that is acidic.

FORMS OF ACID RAIN:There are two forms in which acid deposition occurs – wet and dry. Both are discussed below:

acid rain

Wet Deposition:

When the wind blows the acidic chemicals in the air to the areas where the weather is wet, the acids fall to the ground in the form of rain, sleet, fog, snow or mist. It removes acid from the atmosphere and deposit them on the earth’s surface. When this acid flows through the ground, it affects large number of plants, animals and aquatic life. The water from drain flows into rivers and canals which is them mixed up with sea water, thereby affecting marine habitats.

Dry Deposition:

If the wind blows the acidic chemicals in the air to the areas where the weather is dry, the acidic pollutants slip into dust or smoke and fall to the ground as dry particles. These stick to the ground and other surfaces such as cars, houses, trees and buildings. Almost 50% of the acidic pollutants in the atmosphere fall back through dry deposition. These acidic pollutants can be washed away from earth surface by rainstorms.


Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) released into the air by fossil-fuel power plants, vehicles and oil refineries are the biggest cause of acid rain today, according to the EPA. Two thirds of sulfur dioxide and one fourth of nitrogen oxide found in the atmosphere come from electric power generators. A chemical reaction happens when sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides mix with water, oxygen and other chemicals in the air. They then become sulfuric and nitric acids that mix with precipitation and fall to the ground. Precipitation is considered acidic when its pH level is about 5.2 or below, according to Encyclopedia Britannica. The normal pH of rain is around 5.6


Effect on Soil:

Acid rain highly impacts on soil chemistry and biology. It means, soil microbes and biological activity as well as soil chemical compositions such as soil pH are damaged or reversed due to the effects of acid rain. The soil needs to maintain an optimum pH level for the continuity of biological activity. When acid rains seep into the soil, it means higher soil pH, which damages or reverses soil biological and chemical activities. Hence, sensitive soil microorganisms that cannot adapt to changes in pH are killed. High soil acidity also denatures enzymes for the soil microbes. On the same breadth, hydrogen ions of acid rain leach away vital minerals and nutrients such as calcium and magnesium.

Effect on Health Implications:

Acid rain may not have direct effects on human health. However, the dry depositions in the air that form acid rain can negatively impact human health by causing respiratory problems and difficulty in breathing when inhaled. Children and those who already have respiratory health conditions such as asthma are adversely affected.Headaches and irritations of the nose, throat and eyes are some of the mild implications. Intensified levels of the acidic depositions are linked to risks of developing heart and lung problems such as asthma and bronchitis, and even cancer. When we drink tap water contaminated with acid rain, it can damage our brains

acid rain


There are several solutions to stopping manmade acid rain. Regulating the emissions coming from vehicles and buildings is an important step, according to the EPA. This can be done by restricting the use of fossil fuels and focusing on more sustainable energy sources such as solar and wind power.Also, each person can do their part by reducing their vehicle use. Using public transportation, walking, riding a bike or carpooling is a good start, according to the EPA. People can also reduce their use of electricity, which is widely created with fossil fuels, or switch to a solar plan. Many electricity companies offer solar packages to their customers that require no installation and low costs.


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Foodborne illness, more commonly referred to as food poisoning, is the result of eating contaminated, spoiled, or toxic food. The most common symptoms of food poisoning include nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

food poison

Although it’s quite uncomfortable, food poisoning isn’t unusual. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 1 in 6 Americans will contract some form of food poisoning every year.


Food poisoning symptoms vary with the source of contamination. Most types of food poisoning cause one or more of the following signs and symptoms:

• Nausea

• Vomiting

• Watery or bloody diarrhea

• Abdominal pain and cramps

• Fever

Signs and symptoms may start within hours after eating the contaminated food, or they may begin days or even weeks later. Sickness caused by food poisoning generally lasts from a few hours to several days.


The first and most important complication of food poisoning is dehydration. Food poisoning can cause significant loss of body water and changes in the electrolyte levels in the blood.

If the affected individual has underlying medical conditions requiring medication, persistent vomiting may make it difficult to swallow and digest those medications.

Other complications of food poisoning are specific to the type of infection. Some are listed in the causes of food poisoning such as HUS, TTP, or encephalopathy.


• your symptoms are severe – for example, if you’re unable to keep down any fluids because you are vomiting repeatedly

• your symptoms don’t start to improve after a few days• you have symptoms of severe dehydration, such as confusion, a rapid heartbeat, sunken eyes and passing little or no urine

• you’re pregnant

• you’re over 60

• your baby or young child has suspected food poisoning

• you have a long-term underlying condition, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), heart valve disease, diabetes or kidney disease

• you have a weak immune system – for example, because of medication, cancer treatment or HIV


food poison

To prevent food poisoning at home:

• Wash fruits and vegetables well before eating. This removes dirt, pesticides, chemicals, or other infectious agents used on, or exposed to, the foods in the fields or storage facilities.

• Wash your hands, utensils and food surfaces often. Wash your hands well with warm, soapy water before and after handling or preparing food. Use hot, soapy water to wash utensils, cutting boards and other surfaces you use.

• Foods should be cooked thoroughly. This especially applies to raw meat, eggs, and poultry. A meat thermometer can be used to measure the internal temperature of a meat dish.

• Refrigerate or freeze perishable foods promptly — within two hours of purchasing or preparing them. If the room temperature is above 90 F (32.2 C), refrigerate perishable foods within one hour.


Fortunately, most cases of food poisoning are self-limiting and to eat unhealthy,avoid unhealthy food and besafe in health

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How to Remove Large Pores on Your Face

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Wash your face every day, being careful not to over wash.Wash your face every day, being careful not to over wash. Pores enlarge when they become clogged with dirt, oil, or bacteria, causing them to become inflamed. Washing your face regularly but not too often — once in the morning, once at night — will help keep your pores looking smaller and feeling better.Choosing gel-based cleansersIf a person has oily skin and wants to reduce the appearance of their pores, they should choose a gel-based cleanser.A moisturizing cleanser may leave residue in the pores and increase oiliness.

A gel-based cleanser helps to clear oil from the pores, reducing their appearance.



1. Use the amazing power of lemons to reduce blemishes.

The citric acid in lemons attacks the pigments in your skin responsible for a red or discolored blemish, evening it out. Lemon juice will make blemishes less noticeable, but it can also lighten your skin tone and make you susceptible to sun damage, so always wear sunscreen when you go out.

• Mix tomato juice and lemon juice together and apply to face with a cotton swab regularly. Wash away with cool water after 10 minutes. This mix will reduce blemishes and lighten any facial hairs over time.

• Mix together 2 tablespoons of honey and 1 tablespoon of lemon juice along with a pinch of turmeric. Wash away with cool water after 10 minutes. If applied regularly, this mixture works well.

• Rub a lemon peel along with a bit of sugar over your skin. Let it sit for 10 minutes before washing away with cool water.

2.Use egg white to reduce blemishes

• 1 egg white• 2 tablespoons oatmeal

• 2 tablespoons lemon juice

What You Have To Do

  • Take the egg white and mix it with the oatmeal and lemon juice. Make an even paste.
  • Apply the paste on your face and keep it on for 30 minutes, rinse it off with cold water.
  • Apply the paste twice a week for beautiful skin

3.Use sandalwood powder and water to reduce blemishes. 

Mix together a paste of sandalwood powder and water, applying to face. Leave for 10 to 20 minutes before rinsing off with cool water. Just be careful because sandalwood can dry out your face.

4.banana peelWhat You Have To Do

  • Gently swipe the inside of the banana peel on your face.
  • Wash after 10 to 15 minutes.How Often You Should Do ThisDo this every alternate day.


5.Use Healthy Food :

• Eating well: Getting the right balance of nutrients, fats, proteins, and carbohydrateshelps improve overall health. When a person has a healthful diet, this is reflected in their skin.

• Drinking plenty of water: Water hydrates a person’s skin from within. This helps to improve their overall complexion.

• Exercising regularly: Getting regular exercise increases blood flow to all parts of the body, including the skin. It also gets a person sweating, which is good for skin health. A 2001 studyfound that sweat contains a natural antibiotic substance that helps protect the skin from bacteria.


Aquaguard toll free number for chennai is 9940492121.

5 Tips to Dogs Live Longer[2018]

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This tips are just information supports the common knowledge that a dog with a healthy diet but always consult with a vet before take any action.


Healthy diet:

  • Dog also need healthy diet for long live.
  • Don’t give over food for dog
  • It will give digestion problem
  • Avoid generic meat byproducts, sugars, excess sodium, and unnecessary fillers


  • Exercise will help dog keep healthy and active
  • And it’ll help you live longer
  • It will help reduce stress
  • For dog we will make them evening walk
  • It is the best exercise for dogs

Make them playing:


  • Always make them play with mind games
  • And also give some fun
  • Dogs love to play with children
  • Give some training to take balls or other things

Brush the teeth:

  • Always brush teeth
  • Oral health is also important
  • So regulary brush for bad breath
  • Give some safe chew toys and dental treats

Regualar checkup with vet:

  • Always follow your doctor’s order
  • Take the dog to vet regularly
  • At lease visit your vet twice a year


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