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History Of Watch
Watch is important in our human life cycle. Time is most important in our life watch timer used in our life is working time, school or college time any one they are using in time calculation The history of watches began in 16th century Europe, where watches evolved from portable spring-driven clocks, which first appeared in the 15th century. The watch which developed from the 16th century to the mid 20th century was a mechanical device, powered by winding a mainspring which turned gears and then moved the hands, and kept time with a rotating balance wheel. The invention of the quartz watch in the 1960’s, which ran on electricity and kept time with a vibrating quartz crystal, proved a radical departure for the industry. During the 1980’s quartz watches took over the market from mechanical watches, an event referred to as the “quartz crisis”.
Although mechanical watches still sell at the high end of the market, the vast majority of watches now have quartz movements.
History of time keeping devices is filled with many examples of popular designs that enabled people to measure time, but watches managed to transform our civilization on much larger scale. Before we were introduced to the clocks that were attached to pocket chains or strapped to our wrists, all mechanical clocks were big static table or wall clocks that were slow to manufacture, expensive, and most importantly very inaccurate. Arrival of small watches that can be carried whenever was adopted by population instantly, which fueled countless innovators, engineers, scientists, manufactures and fashion designers to embrace watches and ensure their continuous evolution and growth. Such popularity drove innovations, fueled minds of inventors, and enabled creation of small, reliable, easy to produce and cheap time keeping devices that truly managed form the basis of the modern civilization in which we live today.
First portable clocks were introduced in the early years of mechanical clock production in Europe. During 16th century engineers and manufacturers finally gained the ability to created devices on such small scale that people could carry it with them, but those initial models were way to big and heavy for pocket and wrist. Instead, first portable watches were worn on a neck pendant. Other disadvantages were very bad accuracy (even though they had only hour hand, they could lose several hours during one day), noise, durability and bad protection from outside influences (hour hand was not protected by glass, but only with hinged brass cover).
19th century and the rise of railroad networks brought the need of global standardization of time and expansion of clocks, especially after few train accidents that could have been avoided if train personnel had synchronized clocks that were accurate. Initiative to standardize train time in United States finally came in 1893, which was responsible for large expansion of precise clocks all around the world. But, fashion change struck again during the World War I when pocket watches gained competition from small, extremely portable, and easy to use wrist watches. With the improved technologies of automatic winding, and small designs, wrist watches very quickly became the most popular type of portable clocks on the world. Decades on innovations enabled us to start using electronic watches of many designs, until late 1990’s when era of mobile phones started.
The balance spring made the balance wheel a harmonic oscillator, with a natural ‘beat’ resistant to disturbances. A great leap forward in accuracy occurred in 1657 with the addition of the balance spring to the balance wheel, Prior to this, the only force limiting the back and forth motion of the balance wheel under the force of the escapement was the wheel’s inertia. This caused the wheel’s period to be very sensitive to the force of the mainspring. This increased watches’ accuracy enormously, reducing error from perhaps several hours per day to perhaps 10 minutes per day, resulting in the addition of the minute hand to the face from around 1680 in Britain and 1700 in France. The increased accuracy of the balance wheel focused attention on errors caused by other parts of the movement, igniting a two century wave of watchmaking innovation
The first thing to be improved was the escapement. The verge escapement was replaced in quality watches by the cylinder escapement, The advantage of these escapements was that they only gave the balance wheel a short push in the middle of its swing, leaving it ‘detached’ from the escapement to swing back and forth undisturbed during most of its cycle.
The first timepieces to be worn, made in the 16th century beginning in the German cities of Nuremberg and Augsburg, were transitional in size between clocks and watches. Portable timepieces were made possible by the invention of the mainspring in the early 15th century. Nuremberg clock maker Peter Henlein (or Henle or Hele) (1485-1542) is often credited as the inventor of the watch. He was one of the first German craftsmen who made “clock-watches”, ornamental timepieces worn as pendants, which were the first timepieces to be worn on the body. His fame is based on a passage by Johann Cochläus in 1511.
These ‘clock-watches’ were fastened to clothing or worn on a chain around the neck. They were heavy drum-shaped cylindrical brass boxes several inches in diameter, engraved and ornamented. They had only an hour hand. The face was not covered with glass, but usually had a hinged brass cover, often decoratively pierced with grillwork so the time could be read without opening. The movement was made of iron or steel and held together with tapered pins and wedges, until screws began to be used after 1550. Many of the movements included striking or alarm mechanisms. They usually had to be wound twice a day. The shape later evolved into a rounded form; these were later called Nuremberg eggs. Still later in the century there was a trend for unusually-shaped watches, and clock-watches shaped like books, animals, fruit, stars, flowers, insects, crosses, and even skulls (Death’s head watches) were made.
These early clock-watches were not worn to tell the time. The accuracy of their verge and foliot movements was so poor, with errors of perhaps several hours per day, that they were practically useless. They were made as jewelry and novelties for the nobility, valued for their fine ornamentation, unusual shape, or intriguing mechanism, and accurate timekeeping was of very minor importance.
Now we are using also this one.The first generation of electric-powered watches came out during the 1950’s. These kept time with a balance wheel powered by a solenoid, or in a few advanced watches that foreshadowed the quartz watch, by a steel tuning fork vibrating at 360 Hz, powered by a solenoid driven by a transistor oscillator circuit. The hands were still moved mechanically by a wheel train. In mechanical watches the self winding mechanism, The jewel craze caused ‘jewel inflation’ and watches with up to 100 jewels were produced.
A smartwatch is a computer worn on the wrist, a wireless digital device that may have the capabilities of a cellphone, portable music player, or a personal digital assistant. By the early 2010’s some had the general capabilities of a smartphone, having a processor with a mobile operating system capable of running a variety of mobile apps.
The first smart watch was the Linux Watch, developed in 1998 by Steve Mann which he presented February 7, 2000. Seiko launched the Ruputer in Japan- it was a wristwatch computer and it had a 3.6 MHz processor. In 1999, Samsung launched the worlds first watch phone. It was named the SPH-WP10. It had a built in speaker and mic, a protruding antenna and a monochrome LCD screen and 90 minutes of talk time. IBM made a prototype of a wristwatch that was running Linux. The first version had 6 hours battery life and it got extended to 12 in its more advanced version. This device got better when IBM added a accelerometer, a vibrating mechanism and a fingerprint sensor. It displayed calendar software, Bluetooth, 8 MB RAM and 16 MB of flash memory. It was criticized for its weight of 108 grams and was discontinued in 2005.
In early 2004, Microsoft released the SPOT smart watch. The company demonstrated it working with coffee makers, weather stations and clocks with SPOT tech. The smart watch had information like weather, news, stocks, and sport scores transmitted through FM waves. You had to buy a subscription that cost from $39 to $59. Sony Ericsson launched the Sony Ericsson LiveView, a wearable watch device which is a external BT display for a Android Smartphone. Pebble is an innovative smart watch that raised the most money on Kickstarter reaching 10.3 million dollars between April 12 and May 18. This watch had a 32 millimeter 144×168 pixel black and white memory LCD manufactured by Sharp with a backlight, a vibrating motor, a magnetometer, an ambient light sensor, and a three axis accelerometer. It can communicate with a Android or iOS device using both BT 2.1 and BT 4.0 using Stonestreet One’s Bluetopia+MFI software stack. As of July 2013 companies that were making smartwatches or were involved in smartwatch developments are: Acer, Apple, BlackBerry, Foxconn, Google, LG, Microsoft, Qualcomm, Samsung, Sony, VESAG and Toshiba. Some notable ones from this list are HP, HTC, Lenovo and Nokia. Many smartwatches were released at CES 2014.
The model featured a curved AMOLED display and a built in 3G modem. On September 9, 2014, Apple Inc. announced its first smartwatch named the Apple Watch and released early 2015. Microsoft released Microsoft Band, a smart fitness tracker and their first watch since SPOT in early 2004. Top watches at CES 2017 were the Garmin Fenix 5 and the Casio WSD F20. Apple Watch series 3 had built in LTE allowing phone calls and messaging and data without a nearby phoane connection. During a September 2018 keynote, Apple introduced a Apple Watch Series 4. It had a larger display and a EKG feature to detect abnormal heart function. Qualcomm released their Snapdragon 3100 chip the same month. basic watch functions as well as slightly more advanced functions such as step tracking.
Watch in Very important in our life. different types and different models of watch using. watch is one of the marketing and advertisement product. 24 hours are planing in our life working schedule.
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