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- Water is liquid at room temperature
At room temperature (anywhere from zero degree centigrade to 100 degrees centigrade), water is found in a liquid state. This is because of the tiny, weak hydrogen bonds which, in their billions, hold water molecules together for small fractions of a second. Water molecules are constantly on the move.
Water molecules are constantly on the move. If they are moving fast enough they become a gas. A gas is a physical state of matter where the molecules are far apart and moving very quickly. But, because of the hydrogen bonds, as water molecules come together they stick to one another for a small, but significant amount of time. This slows them down, and holds them closer to one another. They become a liquid; a different state of matter where the molecules are closer and slower than in a gas.
- Water is most dense at 4 °C
Heating reduces the number of ordered, tetrahedral structures in favour of a more disordered arrangement in which molecules are more densely packed. However, the heat also agitates the molecules in the disordered regions, causing them to move further apart. Above 4 °C, this effect takes precedence, making the water less dense.
- What happened at 46 °C?
Water’s compressibility drops with increasing temperature until it reaches a minimum at 46 °C, whereas in most liquids, the compressibility rises continuously with temperature.
As the temperature rises, the dense, disordered regions become more prevalent, and these are more difficult to compress. However, rising temperature also forces molecules within these regions further apart and hence makes them more compressible. This effect takes precedence beyond 46 °C.
- Water has a high specific heat capacity
Water has an exceptionally high specific heat capacity. It takes a lot of heat energy to raise water’s temperature by a given amount. Much of the extra heat energy is used to convert more molecules from the tetrahedral structures to the disordered structures, rather than into increasing the kinetic energy of the molecules, and hence the temperature.
- What happened after 74 °C While heating?
The speed of sound in water increases with temperature up to 74 °C, after which it starts to fall again because the result of the interplay between water’s unusual density and compressibility profiles, which directly stem from the changing balance between the two types of structure.
- Is water difficult to compress?
Yes, Water is difficult to compress in particular cases because the strong attraction between water molecules keeps them more closely packed than the molecules of many other liquids.
This effect is particularly marked when the higher-density disordered structure dominates.
- Specific heat capacity is at a minimum at 35 °C
Specific heat capacity is at a minimum at 35 °C but increases as the temperature falls or rises, whereas the heat capacity of most other liquids rises continuously with temperature. Between 0 and 35 °C, increasing the temperature steadily removes regions of ordered, tetrahedral structure, reducing water’s ability to absorb heat. Above 35 °C, so few of the tetrahedral regions are left that water behaves like a regular liquid.
- Specialty of heavy Water
Properties such as viscosity, boiling point and melting point are significantly different in “heavy” water. Heavy water is nothing but made from the heavier hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium compared with their equivalents in normal water. The heavier isotopes change the quantum mechanical properties of water molecules, altering the balance of the disordered and tetrahedral regions.
- Viscosity is indirectly proportional to pressure
Unlike many liquids, water becomes less viscous but not more viscous, at higher pressures. Molecules are freer to move when in the disordered structures, which are favored at higher pressures, than when they are in the ordered, tetrahedral structure.
- Increasing the pressure increases the amount by which water expands on heating
Rising temperature causes disordered regions to expand more rapidly than ordered, tetrahedral ones, and high pressure favors fluctuations to the disordered regions.
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