In olden days how was drinking water purified? Let us see some olden purification method. We are from best aquaguard water purifier service in chennai.
A safe and convenient water supply plays a vital role in public health and well-being of the society. While there are numerous conventional water treatment technologies available, for a huge population in rural areas of developing countries, these systems would be inappropriate or too expensive. Basically, all such techniques aim to remove visible impurities such as leaves, twigs, or large suspended particles from water collected from unprotected local sources.
These traditional water treatment techniques range from simple filtration using a sieve or cloth to clarification and filtration using naturally available stone filters and plant materials. Coarse media filters, gravel filters, coconut fiber filters, etc., are examples of such developments. There are also household techniques available to remove even some specific water pollutants such as fluorides that can greatly enhance the safety of usage of water for drinking purposes in water scarce regions where there is no other appropriate water source.
Traditional Water treatment methods:
All over the world, rural communities have adopted simple and rudimentary treatment techniques that mainly aim at filtering out the visible impurities from the water collected from local sources.
Some of the traditional treatment methods are,
- Filtration through winnowing sieve (used widely in Mali).
- Filtration through cloth (commonly used in villages in India, Mali and the southern part of Niger).
- Filtration through clay vessels (used in Egypt).
- Clarification and filtration through plant material (commonly used in Tamil Nadu and Kerala, India).
- Jempeng stone filter method (used in Bali, Indonesia).
Filtration through Winnowing Sieve:
This type of filtration is used when the water source is polluted by wind-borne impurities such as dry leaves, stalks, and coarse particles. The raw water is passed through a winnowing sieve, and the impurities are filtered. This type of filter is widely used in villages of the Bamaka area, Mali. This method cannot be used when the raw water is highly turbid or muddy, since the sieve cannot filter fine suspended particles in raw water.
Filtration through Cloth:
Thin white cotton cloth is used as the filter medium. This filter can filter raw water containing such impurities as plant debris, insects, dust particles or coarse mud particles. Filtration of suspended particles present in water can be achieved only to a very small extent. Therefore, this type of filtration is not suitable for highly turbid water. It is most suitable for filtration of well water.
Filtration through Clay Vessels:
Clay vessels with a suitable pore size are sometimes used to filter highly turbid water. Turbid water is collected in a big clay jar and allowed to settle down. Then the water in the jar will trickle through the porous clay wall of the jar. This method of water treatment is common in Egypt.
Filtration through Plant Parts:
Highly turbid water with fine suspended and colloidal particles are first coalesced and settled out using the nuts of a locally available plant, in some of the southern districts of Tamil Nadu, India, which is then filtered using cloth filters. Studies have found that the nuts excrete coagulant chemicals upon soaking which does the trick. Similarly, wiry roots of the rhizomes from the ‘ramachham’ are placed in a clay jar, which has tiny holes in its bottom. Raw water is poured into this jar, and then the water is allowed to filter thorough this layer of roots. The water then trickles through the tiny holes at the bottom of the jar. The filtered water is collected at the bottom of the jar. Usually this filtered water is very clear and has a pleasant smell. This type of water filtration is common in southern districts of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, India.
Jempeng Stone Filter Method:
This type of water filtration method is developed in Saringan batu Jempeng, Bali, Indonesia. Here, a small artificial pond or a by-pass channel is cut by the side to an irrigation canal, which carries muddy water. Jempeng stone filter units are placed in the artificial ponds. The filter unit is carved out of a porous material called ‘cadas’. This unit is placed on the top of a stone-supporting gravel bed. Muddy water filters through the porous wall of the filter unit and gets collected inside.. It can treat even highly turbid water. The main feature of this unit is that the only cost involved is the investment cost. Practically there is no operational or maintenance cost such as for cleaning.
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