10 WATER BORNE DISEASES

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Cholera:

Cholera is a waterborne disease and is diarrhoeal in nature. A person can get affected by Cholera by drinking water or eating food contaminated with the cholera bacterium. It can happen to both children and adults and some of the symptoms of cholera include vomiting, abdominal cramps, watery bowels, and fever.

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Diarrhoea:

Diarrhoea is one of the most common waterborne diseases that mostly affect children under the age of 5. Some of the symptoms of diarrhea include dehydration, severe dizziness, loss of consciousness, pale skin and bloody stool, little or no urination.

Typhoid:

It is another disease that gets transmitted by drinking contaminated water that carries ‘Salmonellae Typhi bacteria’. Some of the symptoms through which you can understand that you are being affected by Typhoid are prolonged fever, loss of appetite, headache, constipation, exhaustion, sleepiness, and nausea. It can also be transmitted by close contact with the infected person.

Amebiasis:

Amebiasis is a kind of parasitic infection in the intestine that is caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, or E. histolytica. The single-celled protozoan usually enters the human body when the person swallows cysts through food or water. Some of the symptoms of amebiasis are the loose stool, stomach pain, and abdominal cramping.

Legionellosis:

Also known as legionnaire’s disease, this particular type of illness is caused by the Legionellabacteria. Unlike previously-mentioned waterborne diseases which target the digestive system, this one chooses another venue to attack – the respiratory system.

Japanese Encephalitis:

Japanese encephalitis is a water related disease that is caused by the Culex Tritaeniorhynchus and Culex Vishnui type of mosquitoes. Therefore, Japanese encephalitis is majorly found in the agricultural regions of India. The Japanese encephalitis virus attacks children the most and in some cases this water related disease can lead to death. The symptoms of Japanese encephalitis include fever, vomiting, headaches and in acute cases, coma, seizures and finally death.

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Filariasis

Filariasis is a parasitic disease and affects people who live near unsanitary water bodies or sewages. Filariasis is spread by mosquitoes that breeds in fresh and stagnant water bodies and is the host of the filarial nematode worm. This worm affects humans and leads to elephantitis. Although Filariasis can be treated and prevented with oral medicines, lack of medicines in rural India leads to severe disfiguration in many cases.

Dysentery:

What is dysentery, you may ask? It is probably one of the most common waterborne diseases around, having killed around 600,000 children who have not yet reached the age of five coming mostly from developing countries. The bacterial disease is caused by the microorganism called Shigella, and just like the cholera bacterium, this little dude attacks cells in the large intestine, resulting to abdominal cramps, anal pain, and bloody stool.

Botulism:

The bacterium, Clostridium botulinum, is the culprit behind botulism. Infection begins with fatigue, problems with eyesight, and slurred speech, something that water diseases are quite known for. Eventually, it progresses to weakness of the facial muscles, and this weakness spreads to the arms and legs. If not treated with antibiotics and/or an antitoxin, the poison of C. botulinum could lead to death as this little beast could even affect breathing and the production of saliva.

Vibrio Illness.

Strains of the Vibrio bacteria are usually found in saltwater, and can be carried by several marine animals like crabs, prawns, and shellfish. If you ingest it, this waterborne illness can manifest cholera-like symptoms. If it enters the body through an open wound, a nagging infection and skin ulcers may occur.

Toxin from the Vibrio bacteria can be lethal, and a visit to the doctor for the necessary antibiotics is highly recommended.

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Water scarcity in India

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Reason behind the water scarcity in India

The water scarcity is mostly man made due to excess population growth and mismanagement of water resources. Some of the major reasons for water scarcity are:

  • Inefficient use of water for agriculture. India is among the top growers of agricultural produce in the world and therefore the consumption of water for irrigation is amongst the highest. Traditional techniques of irrigation causes maximum water loss due to evaporation, drainage, percolation, water conveyance, and excess use of groundwater. As more areas come under traditional irrigation techniques, the stress for water available for other purposes will continue. The solution lies in extensive use of micro-irrigation techniques such as drip and sprinkler irrigation.

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  • Reduction in traditional water recharging areas. Rapid construction is ignoring traditional water bodies that have also acted as ground water recharging mechanism. We need to urgently revive traditional aquifers while implementing new ones.

 

  • Sewage and wastewater drainage into traditional water bodies. Government intervention at the source is urgently required if this problem is to be tackled.

 

  • Lack of on-time de-silting operations in large water bodies that can enhance water storage capacity during monsoon. It is surprising that the governments at state levels has not taken this up on priority as an annual practice. This act alone can significantly add to the water storage levels.

 

  • Lack of efficient water management and distribution of water between urban consumers, the agriculture sector and industry. The government needs to enhance its investment in technology and include all stakeholders at the planning level to ensure optimization of existing resources.

 

  • Fresh water deficit:

    Along with the strain on surface water, the country is also facing great stress with freshwater. Lack of strict state regulation on ground water development has caused a strain on the amount of freshwater available. Indifference from bureaucratic powers and constant neglect has caused the problem to intensify. In hand with the lack of government interference and continued industrial waste deposited into major rivers, most freshwater entering the bodies of water is defiled. The approximation of the untreated water entering the water sources such as rivers and lakes is 90 percent and only furthers the problem.

    Solutions to overcome water scarcity problems:

    • We are drawing more ground water than the amount of recharge through rains. Farm ponds and rainwater recharge is the only way to move forward. We are disrespecting the rain water by allowing the water flow into the sea. That is why we see frequent floods. Unless we decentralize and incorporate local storage of water by creating more ponds check dams we will keep seeing more droughts every year. After all source of water for the ground water is rain water.

     

    • A simple addition of a ‘water free’ male urinal in our homes can save well over 25,000 liters of water, per home per year. The traditional flush dispenses around six liters of water per flush. If all male members including boys of the house use the ‘water free urinal’ instead of pulling the traditional flush, the collective impact on the demand for water will reduce significantly. This must be made mandatory by law and followed up by education and awareness both at home and school.

     

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  • The amount of water that is wasted during dish washing at home is significant. We need to change our dish washing methods and minimize the habit of keeping the water running. A small step here can make a significant saving in water consumption.

 

Waste water treatment and recycling for non-drinking purposes. Several low cost technologies are available that can be implemented in group housing areas.

Very often, we see water leaking in our homes, in public areas and colonies. A small steady water leak can cause a loss of 226,800 liters of water per year! Unless we are aware and conscious of water wastage we will not be able to avail the basic quantity of water that we need to carry on with our normal lives.

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10 Benefits of 7 Day Water Fasting[2018]

Sigma aquaguard is the best aquaguard service center in chennai. Water fast is when a person does not eat and drinks nothing other than water.

There is no set time that water fasting should last for, but medical advice generally suggests anywhere from 24 hours to 3 days as the maximum time to go without food.

Benefits of water fast

Throughout history, people have undertaken fasts for spiritual or religious reasons. But, water fasting is now popular in the natural health and wellness movements, often alongside meditation.

The Zero Calorie Diet:

The fast is intense and grueling due to the emotional challenges involved. Still, it manages to correct minor disruptions in the body as it helps purify the system. When a person takes only water, he or she is consuming ‘zero’ calories. In a body loaded with numerous toxins, both internal and external, the tissues struggle to eliminate the wastes. Our food habits further add excessive calories, thereby slowing down metabolism. Taking virtually no calories for 2 to 7 days was found to revive our tissues and system functions.

Who do fast?

Water fasts are advised for those who can handle several days of intense calorie deprivation. Individuals who have taken a 2-day fast earlier would find it easier to take a 4-day or 7-day fast. Hence, beginners can start with a 2-day water fast. Patients with medical issues require medical consultation before embarking on this plan.

Obese people trying to lose weight can take the fast and observe immediate results. Although, it is necessary to note that the lost pounds might return once the calories come back into your diet. Underweight people might find the fast too grueling, and can experience more fatigue compared to others. Some might face complications during the fast, and they need to stop it immediately.

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What Kind of Water on the Fast?

Since water is the only thing we consumed during the fast, it was important to make sure we had high quality water. We have a whole house filter and a 14-stage under the sink filter, so we were fine with drinking our tap water. Some people prefer to use distilled water while fasting.

Electrolyte depletion is one of the bigger risks of fasting so we added some high quality Himalayan salt to a couple of glasses of our water each day. This is supposed to help with the headaches and tiredness.

The amount of water is also important during a fast. Drinking too much water can cause problems, as can not drinking enough. Sources vary on the exact amount but it ranges between 2-4 quarts a day. I just drank when thirsty and added a pinch of salt to a couple glasses a day.

Benefits of 7 Day Water Fasting:

  1. Having no calories burns approximately 1 pound of fat per day, making it the fastest weight loss method.
  2. Increases insulin sensitivity as there is less fluctuation in blood sugar levels.
  3. Improves body repair, recovery and healing from decreased inflammation.
  4. Lowers stress levels, decreases blood pressure and rejuvenates the body.
  5. Increases immunity due to better cell resistance.
  6. Enables reduction in cancer cell proliferation.
  7. Slows down aging and cognitive decline.
  8. Lowers the risk of heart disease.
  9. Solves digestive problems such as gastritis, irritable bowels, constipation, diarrhea, gas, dyspepsia, and loss of appetite.
  10. Water fasting is also an opportunity for emotional and spiritual introspection. People find they have better control over their thoughts and diet, after they are done with this fast.

Water Fasting Side Effects:

  • Without calories or other nutrients from food, you’ll likely feel tired and lethargic on the water fast.
  • You may also feel dizzy and lightheaded and experience headaches, low blood pressure and abnormal heart rhythms, according to the American Cancer Society.
  • The organization also notes that these effects can make driving or operating heavy machinery more dangerous than usual and that fasting can even increase the risk of an attack in people who suffer from gout.
  • In addition, the water fast might make gallstone symptoms worse.
  • If your water fast lasts for days or longer, the risks grow dramatically. You may compromise your immune system and organ function, possibly damaging the kidneys and liver.
  • If you are continuing your metabolism will also slow as your body tries to conserve energy, so you’ll start burning fewer calories than you did in your solid-food days. Once you start eating normally again, the pounds will pile back on quickly and you may even wind up weighing more than you did when you started your fast.

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[Updated]Is Packaged Drinking Water Good For Health?

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Although vessels to bottle and transport water were part of the earliest human civilizations, bottling water began in the United Kingdom with the first water bottling at the Holy Well in 1621. The popularity of bottled mineral waters quickly led to a market for imitation products.

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It becomes expensive as the water undergoes many processes before it is bottled. On the other hand, packaged drinking water is from any source and has to be treated and disinfected, a process that could involve filtration, UV or ozone treatment, reverse osmosis before it is fit for human consumption.

Types of bottled water:

There are some common types of bottled water are,

Artesian water this is water that originates from a confined aquifer that has been tapped and in which the water level stands at some height above the top of the aquifer.

Purified water  this type of water has been produced by distillation, deionization, reverse osmosis, or other suitable processes. Purified water may also be referred to as “demineralized water”.

Well water  is taken from a hole tapping, etc. This hole may be bored, drilled, or otherwise constructed in the ground.

Fluoridated  this type of water contains added fluoride.

Sparkling water contains the same amount of carbon dioxide that it had at emergence from the source. The carbon dioxide may be removed and replenished after treatment.

Groundwater  this type of water is from an underground source that is under a pressure equal to or greater than atmospheric pressure.

Bottled water service:

It is not uncommon for business or individuals to subscribe to a bottled water service. These services deliver water either monthly or weekly, sometimes even daily. Traditionally, water in glass bottles (jugs) was provided to electric coolers in areas of businesses without plumbing. Plastic containers have replaced those glass jugs however dispensers at businesses now may stand alongside existing water taps or fountains.

Bottled water debates:

Bottled water is bought for many different reasons including taste, convenience, poor tap water quality and safety concerns, health concerns and as a substitute for sugary drinks. The environmental impact, container safety, water origin, emergency supplies and role of the bottled water industry continue to be areas of concern for many people.

Most bottled water containers are made from recyclable PET plastic, and some of these bottles end up in the waste stream in landfills. The financial and environmental costs of transportation of bottled water has been another concern because of the energy used and the consequent release of carbon dioxide and the potential impact on climate change.

In some cases it can be shown that bottled water is actually tap water. However, it is also argued that the quality specifications for some bottled waters in some jurisdictions are more stringent than the standards for tap-water.

In the USA, bottled water that comes from municipal suppliers must be clearly labeled as such unless it has been sufficiently processed to be labeled as “distilled” or “purified”.

It has been argued that bottled water companies should only exist for emergency situations when public water supplies are unsafe, unavailable or overwhelmed.  The contrary view is that if regulations are placed on the availability of bottled water, bottled water companies will not have the sufficient supplies when a water system is compromised, and that the only reason bottled water is readily available during emergencies is because the industry is maintained by routine purchases.

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Perceptions about bottled water:

Bottled water is perceived by many as being a safer alternative to other sources of water such as tap water. Bottled water usage has increased even in countries where clean tap water is present. This may be attributed to consumers disliking the taste of tap water or its organoleptics.  Another contributing factor to this shift could be the marketing success of bottled water. The success of bottled water marketing can be seen by Perrier’s transformation of a bottle of water into a status symbol.  However, while bottled water has grown in both consumption and sales, the industry’s advertising expenses are considerably less than other beverages. According to the Beverage Marketing Corporation (BMC), in 2013, the bottled water industry spent $60.6 million on advertising. That same year, sports drinks spent $128 million, sodas spent $564 million, and beer spent $1 billion.

Consumers tend to choose bottled water due to health related reasons. In communities that experience problems with their tap water, bottled water consumption is significantly higher. The International Bottled Water Association guidelines state that bottled water companies cannot compare their product to tap water in marketing operations. Consumers are also affected by memories associated with particular brands. For example, Coca-Cola took their Dasani product off the UK market after finding levels of bromate that were higher than legal standards because consumers in the UK associated this flaw with the Dasani product.

Health Concerns:

In some areas, tap water may contain added fluoride, which helps prevent tooth decay and cavities. Some bottled water manufacturers in the United States add fluoride to their product, or provide a fluoridated bottled water product.

The Food and Drug Administration of the United States does not require bottled water manufacturers to list the fluoride content on the label. However, unlike tap water where the amount of fluoride added by municipalities to drinking water is not federally regulated, the FDA has set specific limits for how much fluoride may be found in bottled water.

According to a 1999 NRDC study, in which roughly 22 percent of brands were tested, at least one sample of bottled drinking water contained chemical contaminants at levels above strict state health limits. Some of the contaminants found in the study could pose health risks if consumed over a long period of time. The NRDC report conceded that “most waters contained no detectable bacteria, however, and the level of synthetic organic chemicals and inorganic chemicals of concern for which were tested were either below detection limits or well below all applicable standards.

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15 Ways to make drinking water taste better

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  • Add fresh fruits in to the water Citrus fruits, such as lemons, limes, and oranges, are classic water enhancers, but other fruit flavors might also tempt your taste buds.

 

  • Try crushing fresh raspberries or watermelon into your water, or adding strawberry slices. Cucumber and fresh mint are refreshing flavors as well.

 

  • Use fresh juice, any fruit juice can be a good base flavor for water, but tart juices, like cranberry, pomegranate, grape, and apple, are especially delicious.

 

  • Fruits and their juices don’t just taste good it also helps to consume vitamins and antioxidants that can benefit your health too.

 

  • If plain old water isn’t inspiring to you, try a naturally effervescent mineral water, which will give you the added benefit of minerals.

 

  • An another way to make drinking water to healthier than normal one to use bubbly seltzer, a carbonated water. You can add fresh fruit or natural juice flavors to your seltzer, as suggested above, or look for naturally flavored seltzers at your local market.

 

  • Do some creative ideas with ice.Some say that ice water tastes better than water served at room temperature. If that’s so, flavored ice cubes may make an even better drink.

 

  • Use some of the flavoring suggestions above and start experimenting with fresh fruit, mint, or cucumber ice cubes. Simply chop your additive of choice, add it to your ice cube tray along with water, then freeze.

 

  • You may also consider juice, tea, or coffee cubes. If you want to be more creative, use ice cube trays that come in fun shapes, like stars, circles, or even fish.

 

  • After boiling vegetables, such as carrots, reserve the water and chill overnight for a vitamin-packed blast of flavor.

 

  • Add some artificial sweetener, like Splenda or Stevia, to give your drink pep without the calories.

 

  • Add some rose petals into water, it will give some good fragrance while drinking.

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  • Adding a small pinch of salt and a splash of juice to drinking water helps your body to absorb it better so you’ll feel rehydrated faster.

 

  • Fresh herbs such as basil, lemongrass, lavender, peppermint or cinnamon can quickly lend a lot of flavor to your water. Get creative with your herbs and try different combinations to keep things interesting.

 

  • For a warm, tasty treat that will also hydrate you better than plain water, drink a mug of low-sodium broth. The nutrients and proteins in broth also make it one of the best foods for combating a cold or the flu!

Conclusion:

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[UPDATED] WATER PURIFICATION PROCESS

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Water purification plays a key role in ensuring access to safe drinking water. Safe drinking water positively impacts the health of the entire community. Systems are in place to ensure ongoing water quality, including water quality testing. The testing helps ensure the water treatment process results in a product that meets federal water quality guidelines. Water analysis involves looking for several kinds of contaminants, including unsafe levels of organic, inorganic, microbial and/or radioactive contaminants.

water purification process

There are several steps in Water purification process,

  • Screening
  • Coagulation and flocculation
  • Sedimentation
  • Dissolved air flotation
  • Filtration
  • Membrane Filtration
  • Removal of ions and other dissolved substances
  • Disinfection
Screening:

The first step in purifying surface water is to remove large debris such as sticks, leaves, rubbish and other large particles which may interfere with subsequent purification steps. Most deep groundwater does not need screening before other purification steps.

Coagulation and flocculation:

After getting the water from screening process enter into the coagulation process. In this water purification processes is the addition of chemicals to assist in the removal of particles suspended in water. Particles can be inorganic such as clay and silt or organic such as algae, bacteria, viruses, protozoa and natural organic matter. Inorganic and organic particles contribute to the turbidity and color of water.

The addition of inorganic coagulants such as aluminum sulfate  or iron  salts such as iron chloride cause several simultaneous chemical and physical interactions on and among the particles. Within seconds, negative charges on the particles are neutralized by inorganic coagulants. Also within seconds, metal hydroxide precipitates of the iron and aluminum ions begin to form. These precipitates combine into larger particles under natural processes such as Brownian motion and through induced mixing which is sometimes referred to as flocculation. The term most often used for the amorphous metal hydroxides is “floc.” Large, amorphous aluminum and iron hydroxides adsorb and enmesh particles in suspension and facilitate the removal of particles by subsequent processes of sedimentation and filtration.

In the literature, there is much debate and confusion over the usage of the terms coagulation and flocculation—where does coagulation end and flocculation begin? In water purification plants, there is usually a high energy, rapid mix unit process where the coagulant chemicals are added followed by flocculation basins where low energy inputs turn large paddles or other gentle mixing devices to enhance the formation of floc. In fact, coagulation and flocculation processes are ongoing once the metal salt coagulants are added.

Sedimentation:

Waters exiting the flocculation basin may enter the sedimentation basin, also called a clarifier or settling basin. It is a large tank with low water velocities, allowing floc to settle to the bottom. The sedimentation basin is best located close to the flocculation basin so the transit between the two processes does not permit settlement or floc break up. Sedimentation basins may be rectangular, where water flows from end to end or circular where flow is from the centre outward. Sedimentation basin outflow is typically over a weir so only a thin top layer of water—that furthest from the sludge—exits.

Inclined flat plates or tubes can be added to traditional sedimentation basins to improve particle removal performance. Inclined plates and tubes drastically increase the surface area available for particles to be removed in concert with Hazen’s original theory. The amount of ground surface area occupied by a sedimentation basin with inclined plates or tubes can be far smaller than a conventional sedimentation basin.

Dissolved air flotation (DAF):

When particles to be removed do not settle out of solution easily, dissolved air flotation is often used. After coagulation and flocculation processes, water flows to DAF tanks where air diffusers on the tank bottom create fine bubbles that attach to floc resulting in a floating mass of concentrated floc. The floating floc blanket is removed from the surface and clarified water is withdrawn from the bottom of the DAF tank. Water supplies that are particularly vulnerable to unicellular algae blooms and supplies with low turbidity and high colour often employ DAF.

Filtration:

After separating most floc, the water is filtered as the final step to remove remaining suspended particles and unsettled floc.

There are two types of filters are available,

  • Slow sand filter
  • Rapid sand filter
 Slow sand filter:

Slow sand filters may be used where there is sufficient land and space, as the water must be passed very slowly through the filters. These filters rely on biological treatment processes for their action rather than physical filtration. The filters are carefully constructed using graded layers of sand, with the coarsest sand, along with some gravel, at the bottom and finest sand at the top. Drains at the base convey treated water away for disinfection.  Filtration depends on the development of a thin biological layer, called the zoogleal layer on the surface of the filter. An effective slow sand filter may remain in service for many weeks or even months if the pretreatment is well designed.

Rapid sand filter:

The most common type of filter is a rapid sand filter. Water moves vertically through sand which often has a layer of activated carbon or anthracite coal above the sand. The top layer removes organic compounds, which contribute to taste and odour. The space between sand particles is larger than the smallest suspended particles, so simple filtration is not enough. Most particles pass through surface layers but are trapped in pore spaces or adhere to sand particles. Effective filtration extends into the depth of the filter. This property of the filter is key to its operation: if the top layer of sand were to block all the particles, the filter would quickly clog.

Membrane filtration:

Membrane filters are widely used for filtering both drinking water and sewage. For drinking water, membrane filters can remove virtually all particles larger than 0.2 μm. Membrane filters are an effective form of tertiary treatment when it is desired to reuse the water for industry, for limited domestic purposes, or before discharging the water into a river that is used by towns further downstream.

Removal of ions and other dissolved substances:

Ion exchange: Ion exchange systems use ion exchange resin to replace unwanted ions. The most common case is water softening consisting of removal of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions replacing them with benign (soap friendly) Na+ or K+ ions. Ion exchange resins are also used to remove toxic ions such as nitrite, lead, mercury, arsenic and many others.

Precipitative softening: Water rich in hardness is treated with lime and soda-ash to precipitate calcium carbonate out of solution utilizing the common-ion effect.

Electrodeionization: Water is passed between a positive electrode and a negative electrode. Ion exchange membranes allow only positive ions to migrate from the treated water toward the negative electrode and only negative ions toward the positive electrode. High purity deionized water is produced continuously, similar to ion exchange treatment. Complete removal of ions from water is possible if the right conditions are met. The water is normally pre-treated with a reverse osmosis unit to remove non-ionic organic contaminants, and with gas transfer membranes to remove carbon dioxide. A water recovery of 99% is possible if the concentrate stream is fed to the RO inlet.

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Disinfection:

Disinfection is accomplished both by filtering out harmful micro-organisms and also by adding disinfectant chemicals. Water is disinfected to kill any pathogens which pass through the filters and to provide a residual dose of disinfectant to kill or inactivate potentially harmful micro-organisms in the storage and distribution systems.

There are five types of disinfection methods are available,

  • Chlorine disinfection
  • Chlorine dioxide disinfection
  • Chloramine disinfection
  • Ozone disinfection
  • Ultraviolet disinfection
Potable water purification:

Potable water purification devices and methods are available for disinfection and treatment in emergencies or in remote locations. Disinfection is the primary goal, since aesthetic considerations such as taste, odor, appearance, and trace chemical contamination do not affect the short-term safety of drinking water.

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IMPORTANCE OF WATER TO KIDS

Here we can see the importance of water to kids. We are the best water purifier service in chennai.

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Why Is Drinking Water Important  For Kids?

Our bodies are made of about 70 per cent water – it’s what makes up the majority of our blood, digestive juices and sweat, and it’s found in our organs and muscle cells.

Water is used to metabolise fuel, regulate body temperature and digest food. To enable our bodies to carry out all of its functions in the day, water constantly moves about and is lost in the air we breathe, urine, blood loss, sweat and even tears. Children in particular need to make sure they re-hydrate, as water is the main way they regulate their body temperature.

Water contains no energy and in most States of Australia, tap water has been fortified with fluoride to help protect against tooth decay. Australia’s water supply is one of the safest and cheapest in the world so drinking tap is cost effective and good for your health.

Can Less Intake Of Water Harm Kids?

Don’t wait to serve your child a glass of water until he says that he is thirsty. If your child does not drink, the adequate amount of water, he is likely to suffer from dehydration. He may suffer from the following symptoms:

  • dry mouth and lips
  • excessive fatigue
  • lethargy and lack of energy
  • sunken eyes
  • dizzy spells
  • no tears when he/she cries
  • dark, smelly urine
  • headaches

You should immediately take your child to the doctor for treatment when you observe dehydration. The condition can also occur when your child suffers from food poisoning or fever. Playing outside in the sun for long hours too may cause dehydration in kids.

Tips to help your kids stay hydrated:

  • Pack a water bottle for school and when you go out. Try a frozen water bottle in summer.
  • Encourage your child to drink water before, after and during physical activity.
  • Always offer water with meals and snacks.
  • Encourage your child to drink water, even if they don’t like it.

How much water does my child need?

The amount your child needs will vary depending on their age, size and level of activity. For children under 8 years of age, at least 4-6 glasses of water are recommended. For children older than 8 years of age a minimum of 6-8 glasses is recommended. If your child is playing sports or is very active they will need extra fluid, see our section on hydration for active kids. Kids will also need more fluid on hot days or when unwell.

How Drinking Enough Water Can Help Your Kid?

Drinking water can help your kid in the following ways:

  • Helps in maintaining his weight.
  • Helps in regulating your child’s body temperature.
  • Aids the transportation of nutrients to different parts of the body.
  • Alleviates Constipation and Urinary problems.
  • Improves oral health as water contains fluoride.

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Tips To Teach Your Child About The Importance Of Drinking Water:

Here are some handy tips to ensure your kid learns to drink enough water:

  • You can teach children about the importance of drinking water in daily life through pictures, videos and by example.
  • You can show your child two plants one that grows well when you water it and the one that withers when you don’t water it.
  • Make sweet drinks a treat for drinking enough water.
  • Give your child a refillable water bottle that he can take with him when he goes out to play.
  • Teaching your child, the importance of drinking water is a healthy lifestyle choice that you can help him make.

Tips for kids who don’t like water

  • Try adding slices of fruits such as lemon or orange to water, for variety and flavor.
  • Let your kids choose their own drink bottle or serve water in colorful glasses or jugs.
  • Be a role model! Make a point of drinking water with your kids.
  • Experiment with temperature; try having a jug of water in the fridge, adding ice-cubes, or even warm water in winter.

Water is the best choice to keep your kids hydrated throughout the day. Water contains no extra energy and can quench your thirst. Other fluids such as milk, juice and sweetened drinks can also contribute to your child’s fluid intake.

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TOP 10 INTRESTING SECRETS OF WATER

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  1. Water is liquid at room temperature

At room temperature (anywhere from zero degree centigrade to 100 degrees centigrade), water is found in a liquid state. This is because of the tiny, weak hydrogen bonds which, in their billions, hold water molecules together for small fractions of a second. Water molecules are constantly on the move.

Water molecules are constantly on the move. If they are moving fast enough they become a gas. A gas is a physical state of matter where the molecules are far apart and moving very quickly. But, because of the hydrogen bonds, as water molecules come together they stick to one another for a small, but significant amount of time. This slows them down, and holds them closer to one another. They become a liquid; a different state of matter where the molecules are closer and slower than in a gas.

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  1. Water is most dense at 4 °C

Heating reduces the number of ordered, tetrahedral structures in favour of a more disordered arrangement in which molecules are more densely packed. However, the heat also agitates the molecules in the disordered regions, causing them to move further apart. Above 4 °C, this effect takes precedence, making the water less dense.

  1. What happened at 46 °C?

Water’s compressibility drops with increasing temperature until it reaches a minimum at 46 °C, whereas in most liquids, the compressibility rises continuously with temperature.

As the temperature rises, the dense, disordered regions become more prevalent, and these are more difficult to compress. However, rising temperature also forces molecules within these regions further apart and hence makes them more compressible. This effect takes precedence beyond 46 °C.

  1. Water has a high specific heat capacity

Water has an exceptionally high specific heat capacity. It takes a lot of heat energy to raise water’s temperature by a given amount. Much of the extra heat energy is used to convert more molecules from the tetrahedral structures to the disordered structures, rather than into increasing the kinetic energy of the molecules, and hence the temperature.

  1. What happened after 74 °C While heating?

The speed of sound in water increases with temperature up to 74 °C, after which it starts to fall again because the result of the interplay between water’s unusual density and compressibility profiles, which directly stem from the changing balance between the two types of structure.

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  1. Is water difficult to compress?

Yes, Water is difficult to compress in particular cases because the strong attraction between water molecules keeps them more closely packed than the molecules of many other liquids.

This effect is particularly marked when the higher-density disordered structure dominates.

  1. Specific heat capacity is at a minimum at 35 °C

Specific heat capacity is at a minimum at 35 °C but increases as the temperature falls or rises, whereas the heat capacity of most other liquids rises continuously with temperature. Between 0 and 35 °C, increasing the temperature steadily removes regions of ordered, tetrahedral structure, reducing water’s ability to absorb heat. Above 35 °C, so few of the tetrahedral regions are left that water behaves like a regular liquid.

  1. Specialty of heavy Water

Properties such as viscosity, boiling point and melting point are significantly different in “heavy” water. Heavy water is nothing but made from the heavier hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium compared with their equivalents in normal water. The heavier isotopes change the quantum mechanical properties of water molecules, altering the balance of the disordered and tetrahedral regions. 

  1. Viscosity is indirectly proportional to pressure

Unlike many liquids, water becomes less viscous but not more viscous, at higher pressures. Molecules are freer to move when in the disordered structures, which are favored at higher pressures, than when they are in the ordered, tetrahedral structure.

  1. Increasing the pressure increases the amount by which water expands on heating

Rising temperature causes disordered regions to expand more rapidly than ordered, tetrahedral ones, and high pressure favors fluctuations to the disordered regions.

Conclusion: 

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In olden days how was drinking water purified?

In olden days how was drinking water purified? Let us see some olden purification method. We are from best aquaguard water purifier service in chennai.

A safe and convenient water supply plays a vital role in public health and well-being of the society. While there are numerous conventional water treatment technologies available, for a huge population in rural areas of developing countries, these systems would be inappropriate or too expensive. Basically, all such techniques aim to remove visible impurities such as leaves, twigs, or large suspended particles from water collected from unprotected local sources.

These traditional water treatment techniques range from simple filtration using a sieve or cloth to clarification and filtration using naturally available stone filters and plant materials. Coarse media filters, gravel filters, coconut fiber filters, etc., are examples of such developments. There are also household techniques available to remove even some specific water pollutants such as fluorides that can greatly enhance the safety of usage of water for drinking purposes in water scarce regions where there is no other appropriate water source.

Traditional Water treatment methods:

All over the world, rural communities have adopted simple and rudimentary treatment techniques that mainly aim at filtering out the visible impurities from the water collected from local sources.

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Some of the traditional treatment methods are,

  • Filtration through winnowing sieve (used widely in Mali).
  • Filtration through cloth (commonly used in villages in India, Mali and the southern part of Niger).
  • Filtration through clay vessels (used in Egypt).
  • Clarification and filtration through plant material (commonly used in Tamil Nadu and Kerala, India).
  • Jempeng stone filter method (used in Bali, Indonesia).

Filtration through Winnowing Sieve:

This type of filtration is used when the water source is polluted by wind-borne impurities such as dry leaves, stalks, and coarse particles. The raw water is passed through a winnowing sieve, and the impurities are filtered. This type of filter is widely used in villages of the Bamaka area, Mali. This method cannot be used when the raw water is highly turbid or muddy, since the sieve cannot filter fine suspended particles in raw water.

Filtration through Cloth:

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Thin white cotton cloth is used as the filter medium. This filter can filter raw water containing such impurities as plant debris, insects, dust particles or coarse mud particles. Filtration of suspended particles present in water can be achieved only to a very small extent. Therefore, this type of filtration is not suitable for highly turbid water. It is most suitable for filtration of well water.

Filtration through Clay Vessels:

                  

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Clay vessels with a suitable pore size are sometimes used to filter highly turbid water. Turbid water is collected in a big clay jar and allowed to settle down. Then the water in the jar will trickle through the porous clay wall of the jar. This method of water treatment is common in Egypt.

 Filtration through Plant Parts:

 Highly turbid water with fine suspended and colloidal particles are first coalesced and settled out using the nuts of a locally available plant, in some of the southern districts of Tamil Nadu, India, which is then filtered using cloth filters. Studies have found that the nuts excrete coagulant chemicals upon soaking which does the trick. Similarly, wiry roots of the rhizomes from the ‘ramachham’ are placed in a clay jar, which has tiny holes in its bottom. Raw water is poured into this jar, and then the water is allowed to filter thorough this layer of roots. The water then trickles through the tiny holes at the bottom of the jar. The filtered water is collected at the bottom of the jar. Usually this filtered water is very clear and has a pleasant smell. This type of water filtration is common in southern districts of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, India.

Jempeng Stone Filter Method:

This type of water filtration method is developed in Saringan batu Jempeng, Bali, Indonesia. Here, a small artificial pond or a by-pass channel is cut by the side to an irrigation canal, which carries muddy water.  Jempeng stone filter units are placed in the artificial ponds. The filter unit is carved out of a porous material called ‘cadas’. This unit is placed on the top of a stone-supporting gravel bed. Muddy water filters through the porous wall of the filter unit and gets collected inside.. It can treat even highly turbid water. The main feature of this unit is that the only cost involved is the investment cost. Practically there is no operational or maintenance cost such as for cleaning.

Conclusion:

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30 Eye Opening Facts About Water [2018]

Sigma aquaguard is the best Aquaguard Service Center in Chennai. Here we can see 30 eye opening facts about water.

• Water is considered a universal solvent, which means more substances dissolve in water than any other solvent

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aquaguard service center in chennai

• Water is considered a universal solvent, which means more substances dissolve in water than any other solvent.

• The total amount of water on the earth is about 326 million cubic miles of water.

• Hot water can freeze faster than cold water under some conditions. It is commonly known as the Mpemba effect.

• There is the same amount of water on Earth as there was when the Earth was formed. The water from your faucet could contain molecules that dinosaurs drank.

• Nearly 97% of the world’s water is salty or otherwise undrinkable. Another 2% is locked in ice caps and glaciers. That leaves just 1% for all of humanity’s needs — all its agricultural, residential, manufacturing, community, and personal needs.

• Newborn babies have even more drinking in at 78% of water.

• Water regulates the Earth’s temperature. It also regulates the temperature of the human body, carries nutrients and oxygen to cells, cushions joints, protects organs and tissues, and removes wastes.

• There is more water in the atmosphere than in all of our rivers combined.

• Water is the second most common molecule in the universe. The most common is hydrogen gas, H2.

• In developing nation women and girls are primarily responsible for collecting water, on average 25% of their day is spent on this task.

• A swimming pool naturally loses about 3,785 liters a month to evaporation.

• Bottled water can be up to 2000 times more expensive than tap water and it may not be as safe.• Ground water contamination is nearly always the result of human activity.

• A person can live about a month without food, but only about a week without water. If a human does not absorb enough water dehydration is the result.

• Less than 1% of the water treated by public water suppliers is used for drinking and cooking.

• It is a little known fact, but insufficient water consumption is actually a risk factor for various types of cancer. Hydration is critical to blood circulation to allow immune system cells to reach damaged tissues in greater numbers.

• Human bones are 31% water.

Water purifier service in chennai
Water purifier service in chennai

• In 1998 the National Resources Defense Council completed a 4-year test of 103 bottles waters and found that 1/3 of them contained bacteria and other chemicals at levels exceeding industry standards.

• According to the EPA, a full bathtub requires about 280 liters of water, while taking a five-minute shower uses 40 to 100 liters.

• It takes 200 liters of water to produce the coffee beans for one cup of coffee.

• The average person in the United States uses anywhere from 320-400 liters of water per day. Flushing the toilet actually takes up the largest amount of this water.

• By the time you feel thirsty, you’ve lost roughly 1% of the water content in your body.

• On top of Mount Everest, water boils at only 68 degrees Celsius because the atmospheric pressure is so much lower.

• Water is part of a deeply interconnected system. What we pour on the ground ends up in our water, and what we spew into the sky ends up in our water.

• You really can die from drinking too much water eventually you would dilute the sodium level in your bloodstream.

• Water expands by 9% when it freezes. Frozen water (ice) is lighter than water, which is why ice floats in water.

• The only way to ensure pure, contaminant-free drinking water is through the use of a point-of-use filtration system.

• We each drink around 1 cubic meter (1000 liters) of water a year.• A kilo of cotton is enough for a shirt and a pair of jeans but it needs 10,000 liters of water to produce.

• Water is also a key component of your saliva and digestive juices, whose lubricating effects aid in digestion. The water in your system also helps lubricate your joints.

Conclusion:

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